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Low Carbohydrate

A Reference Resource List

Compiled by Emerson Library Staff



2009 Journal Citations


Howard, Brandy; McWatters, Kay; Saalia, Firibu; and Hashim, Isameldin. “ (2009, July/Aug). Cereal Foods World.. 54(4): 116-171.

Formulation and evaluation of snack crackers made with peanut flour.” Study which rates the consumer acceptance and sensory performance of snack crackers formulated with defatted peanut flour. The following flavor varieties were tested: cheddar cheese, garlic, blackened Cajun, and Italian. The following characteristics were analyzed: nutrition, color value, texture, and sensory evaluation. The nutritional benefits include high-protein, high-fiber, and low-carbohydrate  content. The results of the peanut snack crackers experiment show a slightly softer product, with color value similar to commercial varieties. The cheddar cheese flavor variety ranked the highest in terms of consumer acceptance.


“Low-Carb Baking.” (October 2009) ) Prepared Foods (178) 10:42

Profile of a new line of low-carb products from Atkins Nutritionals, including and all-purpose baking mixed penne pasta.


Shih, Yun; Bidlack, Wayne; and Clemens, Roger. (2009, June). “Bissecting Low-Carbohydrate Diets.” Food Technology. (63) 6:

Overview of the research on very low-carbohydrate  diets (VLCD) and low-carbohydrate diets (LCD). "These few, short-term studies suggest low-carbohydrate  regimes may provide more satiety and greater satisfaction than other approaches to weight loss." Diets include: Atkins, Zone, Weight Watchers, and an Ornish-based VLFD.


Westman, Eric. (2009, Feb) “Rethinking dietary saturated fat.”  Food Technology. 63(2). 26-34.

Research has yet to provide conclusive evidence that dietary saturated fat is linked to human disease. Overview of the 2008 IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo's session entitled "Explaining the Public Policy Debate on Dietary Fats" by David Klurfeld, USDA and "Paadigms of Fat: What is Lost (and What is Gained) by Consuming a Low-Fat Diet" by Gary Taubes. According to an article in the British Medical Journal, "Despite decades of effort and many thousands of people randomized, there is still only limited evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monosaturated, or polysaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality." Discusses the link between carbohydrates and disease, the benefits of low-carb high-fat diets, and provides an overview of human metabolism. Includes the following charts: Suggested definitions for low-carbohydrate diets; A low-carbohydrate  ketogenic diet guide (Duke Lifestyle Medicine Clinic); and Effects of a low-glycemic diet vs. a low-carbohydrate  ketogenic diet on metabolic parameters.


2008 Journal Citations


“Venom delivers a chilling sting.” (2008, July).  Food Processing. 69 (7): 14.

The former Cadberry Schweppes unit, renamed as the Dr Pepper Snapple Group has introduced a new energy drink, Venom. This is a low-carbohydrate /calorie energy drink that features caffeine, I-carnitine, guarana, ginsing and taurine.


2005 Journal Citations


“Carb Culling Up North.” (January 2005) Prepared Foods (174) 1:49.

Included is a table on Canadian awareness and level of concern for obesity, trans-fatty acids, and saturated fats.  ACNielsen found that 12 percent of Canadian households have at least one person on a low carbohydrate diet.  In the last six months, 52 percent of Canadians have participated in a weight loss program.


Childs, Mike and Wing, Fabian Lee.   “The Year in Print.”  (January/February 2005) Bakers Journal (65) 1:13-14, 117.

Included are articles from different trade journals and scientific publications last year about hot topics in the baking industry.  These include trans fats, low-carbohydrate, protein, fibres (or fibers), convenience, functional foods, and obesity.


Deis, Ronald C. (2005, Feb). Food Product Design. “The low down on low-carb.

Overview of how the low-carbohydrate craze came to be, how this diet changed the food industry and what can be learned from this and other popular diet trends.  Also explores whether low-carb diets work, what harm they might cause the body and what research is available.  As the low-carb diet began to wane interest in glycemic index became of greater interest to many dieters, includes the history of the glycemic index (GI).  Has some discussion of regulations and labeling claims related to low-carbohydrate   products and glycemic index.  Even though the bakery industry was hurt by the low-carb trends, ultimately it benefited as whole grains gained prominence and market share.  Ultimately, diets will continue to come and go but with more consumer education and awareness of the health benefits of a rounded diet they will not be as extreme as the low-carb craze was

Deis, Ronald C. (2005, Apr). Food Product Design. “Low glycemic foods – ready for prime time?” 15(1), 79-80, 82, 85-87, 89-91.

Offers a description of the chemistry behind carbohydrates and how the different carbohydrates are used by and affect the body.  Then discusses the glycemic index (GI) and how this is a better way to view carbohydrates than the low-carb  diet.  Defines what the GI is and what concerns exist in using the GI as a dieting and labeling too.


“Everybody loves carbs.” (2005, May), pp. 12-16, 18-23.  Food Product Design supplement: "The Case for Carbs"Information on the current push to define what constitutes a low-carbohydrate  product, how many carbs should be consumed for a balanced diet and the decline of low-carbohydrate diet interest.  Also has information on how carbs assist in quick energy, how they help athletes, high fructose corn syrup, carbohydrates bulking and texture functions and resistant starch.  Plus, information on browning, how some carbs can mimic fat and control moisture.


“Low-Carb Baking.” (October 2009) ) Prepared Foods (178) 10:42 Profile of a new line of low-carb products from Atkins Nutritionals, including and all-purpose baking mix d penne pasta. “Fallout from the low-carb craze.  (2005, May ), pp. 5-7.  Food Product Design supplement: "The Case for Carbs.”

A discussion of the results from a survey commissioned by the Partnership for Essential Nutrition to find out what consumers understood about carbohydrates, the many low-carb product claims, the many misconceptions consumers have about carbohydrates, and how to properly compose a healthy diet.


Hursh, H. and Martin, J.  “Low-Carb and Beyond: The Health Benefits of Inulin.”  (March/April 2005) Cereal Foods World (50) 2:57-60.

The authors discuss low carb foods and fact and fiction, the rise in popularity of low-carb diets, health effects of low carb dieting, declining popularity of low-carb diets, future product trends, inulin and its health benefits, and where do we go from here.  Included is a table on consumer rating of cookie concepts with a control, reduced sugar, and reduced sugar and added fiber.


Maningat, Clodualdo, Bassi, Sukh, Woo, Kyungsoo, Dohl, Christopher, Gaul, Jennifer, Stempien, Gregory, and Moore, Toby.  “Formulation of High-Protein, High-Fiber (Low Carbohydrate), Reduced Calorie Breads.”  (April 2005) AIB Research Department Technical Bulletin (27) 4:1-16.

Interest and attention has recently been focused on low carbohydrate foods and beverages.  The bulletin focuses on the popular diet plans for weight control, the role of carbohydrates in obesity, and diabetes, government regulations for labeling, ingredients for formulations, and adjustments for food processing for production of these items.  Also included is a study that evaluated breads formulated with high-protein and high-fiber.  Includes high-protein, high-fiber bread formulas using white or whole-wheat flours, dough and control straight dough formulas using white or whole-wheat flours.


Michaelides, Dr. John.  “Bringing Fibre into Focus.”  (January/February 2005) Bakers Journal (65) 1:9, 58.

                The author answers a technical question about how fiber relates to low-carb baked goods.


Nunes, Keith.  “The Next Phase: The Low-Carbohydrate Diet Trend is Evolving.” (May 24, 2005) Milling & Baking News: Food Business News Edition, 22, 24.

                Lawrence Shiman, the senior account executive at Opinion Dynamics, developed a profile for the typical individual on a low carb diet.  The individual would be between the ages of 30 and 64 with an income level above $75,000 per year. Consumers have become more health conscious in their food choices and are more likely to choose products containing "good carbs" instead of products that are considered to be low-carb. Choices would include items that are made with whole grains, high in fiber and low in sugar.  Includes a table with quarterly dollar and unit sales of food and beverage products over the past eight quarters.  According to the data obtained form ACNielson LabelTrends, sales of "carb-conscious" products peaked in the 3rd quarter of 2004 with sales of $756,118,176.  Sales have declined since that point but have remained steady with sales of these products at $694,559,041 for the 1st quarter of 2005.


Nunes, Ketih.  "Got Your Protein-Enhanced Beverage?" (July 26, 2005) Milling & Baking News: Food News Edition, (84) 21: 30-3.

Growth in the dairy category are increasing not only in the milk and cheese categories but in other categories including yogurt and ice cream. Notes that ethnic cooking has lead to and increased consumption of cheese. Graphs noted the changes from 2001-2005 in milk unit volume, milk dollar sales, cheese unit volume and cheese dollar sales. A list of the top 10 nutrition trends is given on p. 32. Key items in the list are obesity, dietary guidelines, dairy health benefits, calcium, individualized diets, sweetened beverages, early nutrition, functional foods, low-carb dieting declining and food safety concerns.

Viswanathan, Sangita.  “Carbs Are Back.”  (February/March 2005) Food Quality (12) 1:15-16.

The low-carbohydrate diet trend affected bread, pasta, and orange juice sales.  The Grain Foods Foundation has launched a campaign called, “Bread.  It’s Essential.”  Currently the focus is on whole-grain foods and how they are good for the heart.

2004 Journal Citations:


ACNielsen.  “ACNielsen Quantifies Impact of Low Carb Diets.”  (2004: Feb. 9).

This article can be found at  Included in this newsletter article are many figures for the low carbohydrate trend.  Including data on how many are on the diet, have been on the diet, and have never been on the diet.  Product categories most affected by the diet, sales in terms of dollars and volume and how much that has changed since last year.  Categories  included are UPC-coded fresh potatoes, instant rice, cookies, refrigerated orange juice, cereal, bulk and packaged rice, dehydrated potatoes, regular carbonated beverages, dry pasta, fresh bread, white bread, wheat bread, eggs, meat snacks, nuts, bacon, diet carbonated beverages, frozen unprepared meat and seafood, refrigerated sausage, refrigerated sliced lunchmeat, cheese, and frankfurters.  The article also includes results from a home survey on issues such as obesity, trans fatty acids, and saturated fats.


ACNielsen.  “ACNielsen Quantifies Impact of Low Carb Diets.”  (2004: April 12).

Will the Low Cab Phenomenon Continue? 
This article can be found at  Predicts that 80-90 percent of new products introduced in the Low Carb category will fail within the first year.   Sales of Low Carb Products is estimated by LowCarb Biz to be $15 million which the publication believes will double in a year.   Includes graphs of how the Low Carb Trend is changing the food pyramid and
 what diets individuals are currently on.



ACNielsen.   "Low-Carb New Product Launches Slow to 1.2%" (2004: Sept. 13).

According to data from ACNielsen new product introductions in the low carb category grew 1.2% in July.  Includes a graph   showing monthly low carb SCUs.    This article can be found at:


Adamy, Janet.  “Carbohydrates Weigh Down Net at General Mills.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 53:B4.

General Mills reported that because of the low carbohydrate diet their fiscal third quarter performance and full year earnings will be at the low end of their projections.   They are introducing new products in an attempt to increase sales.



Adams, Judi and Sachau, Lori.  “SnackWell’s Revisited: How the Industry is Responding to the Low-Carb Phenomenon.”  (2004) Cereal Foods World (49) 4:245-246.

The authors discuss short-term or long-term solutions for the low carb diet, short-term response and long-term solutions.  They believe that the grain-based industry needs to focus on educating consumers on basic nutrition and the importance of how you much you eat instead of what you eat.


Adamy, Janet.  “Kellogg’s Quarterly Net Rose 34% Despite Switch to Low-Carb Diets.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 80:B4.

Kellogg Company reported that their earnings rose 35 percent for their first quarter despite the increase of raw ingredients prices.  Kellogg’s results are a sign that low carbohydrate diets may not be having a huge impact on starchy food sales despite many company claims.  Carlos Gutierrez, Kellogg’s chairman and CEO, believes that we have seen the peak of low carbohydrate diets and will now see a more moderate number.


Adamy, Janet.  “Some Food Trim Low-Carb Plans as Trend Slows.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (244) 7:B1, B4.

Included is a table on the percent change in sales of carb conscious foods compared to the previous quarters of 2003.  Some food makers have shown decreases in sales of low carb items.  ACNielsen reported sales rose 95% to $336.1 million in the 13 weeks ended March 13, 2004.


 Angelich, Anton P.R. and Symanski, Ernest V.  “Challenges in Formulating Low-Carb Bread Products.”  (2004) Cereal Foods World (49) 6:326, 328, 330.

The authors discuss the benefits of reduced carbohydrate consumption, counting net carbs, the low-carb taste challenge, how taste is the key to a successful product, industry perspectives, revising the USDA Food Guide Pyramid, and the future of baked goods.


“Atkins Nutritionals Introduces New Carbohydrate Label”  (2004: Oct. 12) Milling & Baking News. (83) 33: 12.

Atkins Nutritionals, Inc will introduce new labels with the term "Net Atkins Count" instead of "net carbs".  The new labels are based on a patent-pending method that will back Atkins claims.  The method was developed by food scientists at Atkins and Dr. Thomas Wolever, the acting chair of the department of nutritional sciences at the University of  Toronto.


"Atkins, Sara Lee Team Up To Develop Reduced-Carbohydrate Pizza Line." (2004: June 1) Milling & Baking News (83) 14: 13.

Atkins Quick Cuisine Pizza will be distributed nationwide by Sara Lee Corp for Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. The new product is a single-serve pizza with 70%-80% few carbohydrates than regular pizza and is available in three varieties: supreme, all-meat "smokehouse" and pepperoni.    The pizza was introduced at the National Restaurant Association show held in Chicago.

Ayer, Jane.  “Bagel Bakers Feeling Effects of Low-Carb Dieting." (2004: May) Modern Baking (18) 5: 22.

According to data obtained from the market research company Information Resources Inc., bagel sales have declined possibly as a result of the low-carb diet trend. For the 52 weeks that ended March 21, 2004, fresh bagel unit sales declined 4.5% to 168,400,960 for the same time period a year ago, while frozen bagel unit sales declined 21.8% to 58,636,104. Does not include data for refrigerated bagels.


Ayer, Jane.  “Low-Carbing It (All the Way to the Bank).”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 3:16-17.

Calgary’s Lakeview Bakery has produced low carb products to meet consumer demand.  The owner has seen his sales increase since he started selling low carb items.  The bakery specializes in allergen baking, sugar-free items, and gluten-free items also.


Ayer, Jane.  “To Low-Carb or Not.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 2:31-32.

The author discusses a dinner that was held by the Ontario chapter of the Baking Association of Canada.  There they discussed offering low carbohydrate baked good and how bakers should respond.  Included is a formula for low carbohydrate sugar cookies.


Banasiak, Karen.  “Carbohydrates: To Count or Not to Count.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 5:38, 40, 42-43.

The author discusses how Americans are overweight.  About 129.6 million adults are overweight or obese.  Atkins released the low carbohydrate and high protein diet in the 1970s but it did not catch on until the 1990s.  Because of the popularity of the diet, many food manufacturers are creating low carbohydrate foods.  The author discusses how this number increases, how consumers are trying to eat healthier, what low-carb actually means, and if consumers are really buying low carb items.


Beach, Tarre.  “C4rb Count1n6.”  (2004) Baking Buyer (16) 3:22.

Because of the popularity of the low carbohydrate diet, bakers are trying to produce low carb or reduced carb products.  The author discusses the FDA’s labeling regulations on low carbohydrate products.  There is actually no ruling as of yet but that does not mean claims are not being watched and regulated.  The author discusses some of the language that can be used and some that cannot when labeling products.


Beach, Tarre.  “Fifteen To Watch Retail: Carb Counting.”  (2004) Baking Buyer (15) 12: 44-47, 50, 52, 54-58, 60-62, 64-68.

Retailers have responded to the popularity of the low carbohydrate diet by introducing low carbohydrate products.  The author includes profiles on each of the fifteen companies that include annual system wide sales, total number of units, projected store openings for 2004, new locations for 2004, production format, headquarters location, phone, website, purchasing contact, and a half page article for each and how they have responded to the low carbohydrate diet.  The companies include Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Panera Bread, Starbucks Coffee, Subway, New World, Mrs. Fields, Dunkin’ Donuts, Corner Bakery, Lamar’s, Breadsmith, Au Bon Pain, Atlanta Bread, Cinnabon, Great Harvest, and Big Apple Bagels.


Beach, Tarre.  “How Do You Measure Up?”  (2004) Baking Buyer (16) 4:43-44, 46, 48, 50, 52.

The author focuses on how to strengthen your low carbohydrate strategy.  She discusses success stories, tasting profiles, how to stand out from the competition, pricing, finding a formula, the future of flour, and labeling laws.


“Berry Delicious.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:58-61.

Included recipes for strawberry blue cheese salad (11g carbs), white sangria splash (7g carbs), berri-licious syrup (6g carbs), blueberry muffins (6g carbs), Kir Royale mold (5g carbs), strawberries with Cassis, balsamic vinegar, and mint (12g carbs), and strawberry cream cheese squares (3g carbs).


Bloom, Richard.  Low-carb Atkins? McDonald's Is Lovin' It.  (2004: Feb. 6)  The Globe and Mail

(  This article was cited in the Food Institute Daily Update 02/09/04.

McDonald's Restaurants of Canada Ltd. plans to introduce low-carbohydrate items to its menu.  The new menu items will not include fries or a bun.   McDonald’s is one of the latest fast food restaurants to add a low carb section to its menu.  According to data from the publication LowCarbiz, sales of low carb products will generate $25-billion to $30-billion this year.


Bruns, Danny.  “Taking Out the Carbs But Keeping the Taste.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 7:16.

Chefs can be instrumental in developing and finding alternatives for the low carb trend without hurting taste and flavor.  The author discusses how to eliminate carbohydrates such as removing bread or potatoes from the offerings, replacing undesirable ingredients or food items, and using new technologies to create new processes to make ingredients or finished products.


"Bunless Burgers Offered at McDonald's." (2004: April 16) Bakery Newsletter (36) 16: 1.

McDonald's Corp.  plans to offer its new bunless burgers nationwide.    Currently this menu option is only available in the Northeast as part of the company's low-carbohydrate menu options.  


"Canada Bread's Profit Soars; Greater Low-Carb Impact May Loom.   (2004: May 11) Milling & Baking News (83) 11:17.

Canada Bread reported an increase of earnings of 54% to $7.8 million, in its first quarter that ended March 31, 2004. The company recently added Dempster Carb Wise and Healthy WayCarbConscious bread to its product line. Both products had "strong volume sales in the first quarter." The commercial bread market in Canada declined 1% for the first quarter but Canada Bread feels that their whole grain and premium bakery products will allow them to maintain strong sales while consumers are still on low carbohydrate diets.


“Carb Counting.”  (2004) Baking Buyer (16) 2:50.

ACNielsen Homescan Panel reports that more than 17 percent of American households have at least one person on a low carbohydrate diet.  Included is a table on nuts and their carbs in grams.  Included are Brazil nuts, macadamia, pecans, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, pistachios, cashews, and chestnuts.


“Catering To The Low-Carb Crowd.”  (2004: January 25) Columbus Dispatch (Ohio).

The article is through news briefs at  Restaurants are reworking their     menus so that they can meet the low carb demand.  They are offering burgers without buns and pizzas without crust.  A poll done by Harris Interactive of Rochester, N.Y. reports that about 32 million people in the U.S. are on the low carb diet.  The author discusses some of the menu changes in restaurants like Subway and T.G.I. Friday’s.


Childers, Linda.  “So Very Vivica.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy.  (1) 2:22-23.

Vivica A. Fox is an actress.  She discusses her upcoming television show, movies that she was in, and why she started a low carbohydrate diet.  She includes a recipe for tuna salad.


 “Classified Low Carb Research: Trend or Fad?”  (2004) Pizza Marketing Quarterly 18.

Included is information from research done by Opinion Dynamics Corporation on low carbohydrate diets.   This includes general findings, overall frequency of the diet, and demographic differences.  The following tables are in the article: low-carbohydrate diet incidence, frequency of following low-carb diets, income and low carbohydrate diets, and importance of low-carb brand labels and advertising in consumer decisions.  Opinion asked consumers what the most difficult food would be to give up.  Thirty-six percent said pasta and 24 percent said bread.


Clemens, Roger Dr. P.H. and Pressman, Peter M.D.  “Clinical Value of Glycemic Index Unclear.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 7:18.

Jenkins introduced the use of the glycemic index in 1985 as a possible tool to help manage type 1-diabetes and dyslipidemia.  The authors argue that this index should not be used to label foods good or bad.  They want to focus on the importance of weight loss through the caloric content in food instead of relying on the source of carbohydrates and their impact on insulin for a person.


Clemens, Roger Dr. P.H. and Pressman, Peter M.D.  “Low-Carb Craze Unwarranted.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 6:22.

Low carbohydrate diets did not have a controlled trial until 2003.  Despite this, the diet has developed a multi-million dollar industry.   There is not enough evidence to show that they are good for people or to recommend people going on the diets to lose weight.  Obesity is a problem but exercising and eating right is the key.


“Coalition Forms to Criticize Low-Carb Dieting.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 7:9-10.

Partnership for Essential Nutrition formed to educate consumers about the risks of low carbohydrate diets.  They warn that the diets are not likely to lead to long-term weight loss.  Opinion Research Corp. conducted a survey that the coalition is responding to that shows the popularity of the diet.  They are also calling for government action on low-carb claims.


Correa, Barbara.  “Healthy Prospects: Producers Scramble to Meet Rapidly Increasing Demand for Low-Carb, Organic Foods.”  (2004: January 18) The Daily News of Los Angeles. 

The article is through news briefs at  The author discusses what different companies are introducing to meet the demand for low carbohydrate and organic food.  She discusses Campbell Soup Co. and their new organic tomato juices and Interstate Bakeries Corp. introducing low-carb Roman Meal-brand loaves with only 6 carbs per slice.  Frito-Lay Inc. is making plans to start a new line of low carb tortilla chips.  These products cost more than their high carb counterparts but consumers are willing to pay for it so that they can get a better body.


Crislip, Kathleen.  “Low-Carbing For Life.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:78-79.

This is a success story of Gerald and Linda O’Neil of Binghamton, New York.  They went on the low carbohydrate diet.  Included is a chart on Gerald’s cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and weight before and after.  They discuss staying on the diet, words of wisdom, doing it as a team, and loving their health.


Crossen, Cynthia.  “Dieters Curbed Carbs, Loaded Up on Proteins Way Back in the 1860s.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 88:B1.

The author discusses William Banting from the 1860s who was overweight.  His doctor tried everything to help him lose weight.  He finally put him on a diabetic diet, essentially a low carbohydrate, high protein diet.  He lost his weight.   The doctor did not have enough money to publish the diet for others, so Banting paid with his own money to print a book of the successful diet.  The new diet only lasted a few years before it was lost in other popular diets of the time.


Culhane, Carol.  “Saying No To Low-Carb.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 3:13-14.

Culhane believes that the baking industry needs to take a stand and defend itself against low carbohydrate diets by educating consumers about bakery products and carbohydrates.  Low carbohydrate diets seem to be everywhere and it seems everyone is advertising them.  The author discusses food and nutrition facts, consumer profiles for low-carb diets, and industry statistics.


“Cutting Carbs; Searching for Flavor While Slashing Carbohydrates?  Our Tasters Test the Market.”  (2004: January 14) Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Wisconsin).

The article is through news briefs at  Because of low-carbohydrate diets, new versions of breads, snacks, pastas, cereals, and ice cream are hitting the market.  Because of the many low carb diets, the demands for these products have increased and seem to be increasing.  Already, bacon and egg prices have increased and retailers are promoting low carb items in their stores.   The author put together some of the low carb foods and had people taste test the products.


“Data Indicate One Adult in Seven Following Low-Carbohydrate Diet.”  (2003: Sept. 23) Milling & Baking News (82) 30:1, 18. 

A Harris Interactive Survey sponsored by Novartis Consumer Health Inc., concluded that 32 million American are on “high-protein, low carbohydrate diets.”  2,078 adults were surveyed for the study.  Diets that the surveyed group followed included Atkins, South Beach and the Zone diets. 


Decker, Kimberly J.  “Magical Eggs: The Key to Low-Carb and Beyond.”  (2004) Food Product Design Supplement (14) 4:1-5.

The low carbohydrate diet is popular in the U.S.  In 2003, the low carb market grew to $15 billion and is expected to be $30 billion in 2004.  The author discusses the nutritional profile of eggs friendly fats, macronutrients, reformulation of formulas using eggs, how eggs can make a meal, and how they classic egg based recipes were here before the Atkins diet waiting to be discovered.  Included is a table on the functional properties of eggs including their descriptions and applications.


Dooren, Jennifer Corbett.  “FDA to Issue Guidelines This Year to Sort Out ‘Low-Carb’ Claims.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (244) 23:A5.

The FDA will issue low carb guidelines later this year and will recommend that food manufacturers display serving size and calories more prominently on food labels.  These moves could help Americans lose weight.


Ellison, Sara.  “Atkins Labels Will Drop Term ‘Net Carbs’.  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (244) 68:B10

Atkins International plans to drop the term "net carbs" from its food labels.   The term will be replaced with "net Atkins count" accompanied by a new seal.    Company officials state that the new terminology is  a "global positioning system" for the company and will help with consumer confusion.


Ellison, Sarah.  “Blood Sugar, Sugar Alcohol and the FDA.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (244) 18:B1, B6.

Dieters are counting carbohydrates, but they could be off in their counting.  The author discusses net carbs and the FDA.  The FDA has doubts about the term net carbs and is looking into defining low carb.


Ellison, Sarah.  “Let Them Eat Net Carbs.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (244) 18:B1, B6.

Included is a table on Atkins-brand packaged foods and how they advertise low net carbs but grams of total carbohydrates per serving are often much higher for the product.  Atkin's’s Nutritionals Inc. has warned consumers that many products in the market are either mislabeled or contain too many carbohydrates so they are not really “low-carb.”  Atkins has defended its own use of the wording, “net carb.”


Ellison, Sarah and Ball, Deborah.   “Now Low-Carb: Unilever’s Skippy, Wishbone, Ragu.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 9:B1, B2.

Unilever is launching a new line of low-carbohydrate products.  This line includes 18 products and is called “Carb Options.”   Unilever estimates that 30 to 50 million people are carb conscious.  This risky step shows how mainstream the low carbohydrate diets are becoming.


“Exploiting Atkins.”  (2004: February 9) Strategy.

This article is through news briefs at  The author talks about the different restaurants that have added low carb items to their menu.  The low-carbohydrate diet seems to have stayed the longest as a diet fad in North America.  People are using the Atkins diet for the war on obesity.  The author discusses Subway, Burger King, McDonalds, among others.  Some people have started a campaign against the diet through Whole Grains Bureau.  Their web site is


“FDA Warning Letters for Low-Carb Labels.”  (2004) Manufacturing Confectioner (84) 1:7.

The FDA has not specified what makes up “low-carb” food yet but has sent letters to companies warning them that their low carb claims are illegal.   One company that was warned was Universal Nutrition Inc.  They changed their Doctor’s Diet Low-Carb products to Doctor’s CarbRite Diet products.  Other companies are still fighting with the FDA over their low carb claims, like Carbolite Foods.  The Grocery Manufacturers of America is asking the FDA to create guidelines for foods that can be legally promoted as low carb.


Feig, Barry.  “Carb Counsel.”  (2004) Frozen Food Age Supplement: Health, Wellness & Low Carb.  1, 20.

Food marketers for the low carbohydrate diet have turned the food pyramid upside down.  Included is a table on the top 15 low-carb brand lines and line extensions annual dollar sales.  The author also discusses how the low carbohydrate diet is popular throughout the world.


Fields, April S.  “When School Lunches Flunk Out: How To Make the Grade With Good Food.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:38-40.

The U.S. government’s food guide pyramid was described as “just plain wrong” from the Harvard Medical Schools’ report Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy (Simon & Schuster, August 2001; ISBN 0743224225).  The author discusses the National School Lunch Act and what kind of junk food kids get when they eat lunch at school.  She includes ideas on what to send to school for lunch that are health.  Included is a recipe for cheesy chips (less than 1g carbs), chicken salad roll up (5g carbs with tortilla), deviled egg salad roll up (2g carbs with tortilla), cheese quesadilla (less than 1 g carb), and strawberry yogurt smoothie (18g carbs).


Geiski, Jeff. “Too Good to Resist.” (2004: Aug. 10) Milling & Baking News (83) 24: 41-42, 44-5, 47.  

Discusses how the demand for fiber has increased due to formulation changes in the baking industry.  The increase in demand in these ingredients can be contributed to consumer interest in low-carbohydrate diets.   Fiber ingredients that are more in demand include: resistant starch including the ingredients Hi-maize and Fibersym, which are classified as RS-2 (natural resistant starch) and RS-4 (modified resistant starch).    The importance of water in using these ingredients and formulating fiber blends are highlighted.  Other fiber ingredients profiled include: Citri-Fi, Frutafit, fructooliogosaccharides, and Listesse polydextrose.


Giese, James.  “TTB Issues Ruling on Low-Carb Alcohol Labeling.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 5:20.

The U.S. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau made a ruling to give guidance for advertising and labeling of alcoholic drinks that are associated with caloric and carbohydrate claims.   More information can be found at


Gibson, Richard.  “Bread May Be Dead as Low-Carb Diets Near Critical Mass.”   (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 34:D4.

Opinion Dynamics Corp., a market research firm, conducted a survey and estimates that about 11 percent of all Americans, or 24 million adults, are on a low-carbohydrate diet.  Twenty percent more are likely to try one of the low carbohydrate diets in within two years.  The researchers did leave what made up a low-carb diet to the people they surveyed.  The survey also showed that 80 percent of low carb dieters adhere to the diet at home and about 60 percent said they do stick to the diet when eating out.   The hardest thing for people to give up is spaghetti and pasta.  The diet is most popular for people 46 to 64 years old.


Gibson, Richard.  “McDonald’s to Offer Option of Bunless Burgers Nationally.”   (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 70:B3.

McDonald’s will soon be offering bunless burgers in their restaurants to appeal to low carbohydrate, high protein dieters.  Beef and chicken sandwiches will be able to be ordered bunless and will be wrapped in lettuce.  The sandwiches will come with a knife and fork in a bowl and will be sold for the same price as their bun counterparts.


Giese, James.  “Work Continues on Carbohydrate, Fiber Analysis.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 4:72-74.

Carbohydrates are a major source of energy in most diets.  In the U.S., the Department of Agriculture reports that carbohydrates supply 40-60 percent of the calories in a diet.  The author discusses analytical techniques such as physical methods, colorimetric and spectrometric methods, enzymatic methods, chromatographic procedures, and dietary fiber.  The FDA is expecting to release new definitions and expects to see many labels change because of it.  The FDA could rule as early as this summer on new definitions for low-carb food.


“GMA Asks For FDA To Formulate Low-Carb Rule.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 3:9.

The Grocery Manufacturers of America has petitioned the FDA to establish regulations for carbohydrate nutrient content claims.  Currently, there are no regulations about claims.  The GMA has recommended labeling such as carbohydrate free, low carbohydrate, good source of carbohydrate, and excellent source of carbohydrate.


Goddin, Lesley.  “Nutritious Nibbles for Snack Attacks.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:28-30.

Snacking is something people want to do and it is something you can do on a low carbohydrate diet.   The author discusses snacks that are natural and nutritious, on the go, sweeter snacks, and a reminder to be careful of the low-carb snacks because they are not necessarily low calorie.  Included in the article is a recipe for sugar free chocolate mousse, a list of store bough snacks, and a list of natural snacks for low carb dieters.


“Good Demand For New Sara Lee Products.”  (2004: January 23)   Bakery Newsletter (36) 4: 2.

Sara Lee Corporation reports that its new line of low-carbohydrate bread sold under the Delightful brand is “exceeding company expectations.”   


“Healthy Plate: Low-Carb Fight Swirls Around Pasta Makers.”  (2004: February 4) The Boston Globe.

The article is through news briefs at  Pasta manufacturers are working on developing low-carb versions of pastas for Atkins dieters.  Health professionals however are trying to fight back against the low carb diet.  Dr. Atkins had said that if you want pasta that you should cook it al dente so that the carbs would be absorbed in the blood stream.  Experts wish he were still alive so they could ask him for his data. 


“Hidden Carb Alert.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:40,54.

This alert was adapted from Karen Rysavy’s  She reports that crystal light, sugar-free Kool-aid, and sugar-free tang (dry mixes) actually contain carbs despite that their labels say they have none.  Five calories per ounce is 1.25g of carbs per serving.  So, two quarts has 10g of carbs.  One large egg has 0.6 carbs.


Hinton, Brian.  “Meeting the Low-Carb Challenge.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 2:29-30.

The author includes a quiz on low carb for life.  The author also discusses how they started making low carb products because that is what consumers wanted.  He also discusses what to consider from a research and development perspective about low carbohydrate products, a pre-commercial evaluation, conforming to regulations, using the language of low carb dieters, training staff, and marketing and promotion of your low carbohydrate products.


Holay, Anju.  “Surveying Low-Carb Interest.”  (2004) Prepared Foods (173) 6:37.

LowCarbiz has predicted that the low carbohydrate market will reach $25 to $30 billion in sales this year in the U.S.  The survey was an Internet based market research.  Included are a table on unfulfilled needs for low carbohydrate products and a table on interest in low carbohydrate products.


Hubrich, Beth.  “Low-Carb Diets - Does Science Support Them?”  (2004) Food Product Design (13) 11:59-60.

The author discusses some different studies that have been going on in the past few years concerning low carbohydrate diets.  She also includes some information from different studies and discusses the glycemic index.  The article was reprinted from the Calorie Control Council’s Fall 2003 “Calorie Control Commentary.”  The newsletter is available online at


“I.B.C. Reduced Carb Bread Hits the Market.”   (2004: January 23) Bakery Newsletter (36) 4: 1

Interstate Bakeries Corporation started distribution of its Home Pride CarbAction Bread on January 19, 2004.  The new bread is available in white and multi-grain varieties and contains 6 grams of net carbohydrates per serving. 


“Introducing: The Atkins Food Pyramid.  A Sensible Approach to a Healthy Lifestyle from Atkins, the Low Carb Experts.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 67:A9.

This is an advertisement that includes an Atkins’ style food pyramid.  For more information, visit


Jones, Julie Miller.  “Nutrition.”  (2004) Cereal Foods World (49) 3:164-166, 168.

Fiber, cereals, and body weight and health have been linked from a study done at Harvard of 75,000 female nurses and 39,000 male health professionals.  The author also discusses the benefits and risks associated with a low carbohydrate diet, the effects of low glycemic index cereals, and low carbohydrate foods and if they are what the dieter wants.  She also discusses fiber, colon cancer, peripheral artery disease and insulin as well as rye and buckwheat at underrated and under used whole grains.  Jones also mentions whole grain components and their potential effects, blood sugar lowering properties of cinnamon, and baked products as a risk factor in testicular cancer.


Kadera, Jim.  “Turning Cookies Into Dough.”  (2004: January 22) The Oregonian.

This article is through news briefs at  The author discusses Lite Harvest and how the owners chose Clackamas as the new home base for their low-carb cookie company that is growing during the low-carb craze.  Jon Thomsen and Mike Martin, the owners, showcased their cookies at the Fancy Food Show in San Francisco.  They actually ran out of cookies while they were there and had to have more FedXed to them.  


Katz, Francis R.  “Low Carb Trade-Off?”  (2004) Chef (14) 6:12.

The low carbohydrate diet may rob the body of folic acid benefits.  The author includes a table of ingredients or dishes that increase folic acid intake along with how much is needed and how much folic acid is given.  The foods include beef liver, cowpeas, asparagus, orange juice, broccoli cooked, tomato juice, egg, and raw papaya.  Folic acid deficit is more of a concern for women than men.


Kilar, Maureen.  “Do Not Hold My Buns!; Enough is Too Much.”  (2004: February 8) Press Journal.

The article is through news briefs at  The author discusses some of things that she did not like about low fat diets and has now decided that they have gone too far by saying that she should not eat carbohydrates.  She tried ordering the Atkins way at a fast food restaurant.   She decided that she liked buns because they hold the sandwich together.  The author also says good-bye to some favorite restaurants that are carb loaded.


Kolettis, Helen.  “Industry Responding to Low-Carb Craze.”  (2004) Food Product Design (13) 10:19-20, 22.

The low carbohydrate diet has received more attention than the low fat diet in the 1990s.  The food industry has started to feel the effects from this craze.  Places are trying to sign deals to offer Atkins-style foods on their menus.  Some people in the industry however, are trying to remind people that carbohydrates are a part of a balanced diet.  The author discusses a conference in February 2004 in Rome called, “Pasta Around the World: A Global Overview of the Science and Healthful Pasta Meals.  The National Bread Leadership Council has released information showing that Americans are eating less bread then they were a year ago because most Americans do not have a basic understanding of the health benefits of breads and other grains.


“Krasny, Leslie T.  “Petitions and Policies.”  (2004) Wellness Foods (6) 3:16-17.

The FDA is thinking of petitioning some card claims.  The author discusses what some other agencies think about interim policies on low carb claims.  Included are some comments from ConAgra Inc. and the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI).


Kretikos, Eleni. “Bethesda firm pulls low-carb lever in vending market.  (2004: April 9) Washington Business Journal.

Low Carb Vending plans to introduce vending machines for low carbohydrate products.  The company will either put in a new machine for the products or adapt machines already in use.  The machines will hold about 30 items including products from Atkins, Slimfast, EAS, Carb Solutions, CarbWise and others.   


“A Large Number of Canadians Reducing Carbs.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 4:7.

Decmia Research for Canadian magazine Strategy conducted a poll that shows 43 percent of those polled were reducing their carbohydrate intake.  Women who are 35 and up are the most likely to be on the diet.  Twenty percent of those polled reported that they had recently purchased a low-carb product.


Lawton, Christopher.  “Most Light Beer Is ‘Low Carb,’ U.S. Decides.”   (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 70:B1.

The federal government has decided that almost all light beers are low-carb.  Included is a table on different beers and how many grams of carbohydrates they contain.  The U.S. declared that light beers containing seven carbs or less are considered low carbohydrate products.


Lehmann, Tom.  “The ‘Low-Carb’ Quagmire: Can You Meet the Demand for a “Low-Carb” Pizza?”  (2004) Pizza Today (22) 8:17-18, 20.

Even the low carbohydrate diet is popular and many products have been developed in this area, the problem is that there is no definition of what low carbohydrate is.  You can read more about actions taking the by the Federal Trade Commission about low carbohydrate claims at or the FDA’s website at   The author discusses how operators can make pizza crusts more “carb friendly” by making a whole-wheat crust or a multi-grain crust.


Lewis, Len.  “Catering to Low-Carb Consumers.”  (2004) IGA Grocergram (78) 6:52-55.

The author discusses the low carbohydrate and high protein diet craze.  Included are pictures of new carb options products that were introduced by Unilever Bestfoods.  NPD group reported their findings from a survey that showed that ten percent, or ten million, people are on a low-carbohydrate and high protein diet.  The largest group of carb cutters is middle-aged consumers between the ages of 35 and 64.  The survey also showed that people who cut their carbs had health problems such as high blood pressure.


 “Looking at Lower Carb Products?  -Remember the Regulations!”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 2.

Canada has requirements set to make claims for reduced or low carbohydrate foods.  They will not be able to be used after December 2005 when the new Mandatory Nutrition labeling regulations take effect. 


“Low-Carb Dieters Still Eating Carbs.” (2004: April 9) Bakery Newsletter. (36) 15:3.

The NPD Group has released a report called "Report on Carbohydrate Consumption Patterns" that most of the 11,000 adults surveyed were not reducing their carbohydrate intake as much as are recommended for low-carbohydrate diets.  The report found that the average consumption of refined carbohydrates by consumers was 128 grams.  Men averaged 145 refined with women's consumption slightly lower at 109 grams.  Low carbohydrate diets recommend 20 to 50 grams a day for weight loss.


"Low-Carb Diets, Obesity Concerns Cause Chains to Rethink Menus."  (2004: June 8) Milling & Baking News (83) 15: 9.

Discusses how the low-carbohydrate diet trend has led top food chains to change or add to their menu options. Mentions Panera Bread Co., Cinnabon Inc., McDonald's Corp., Burger King Corp., Wendy's International, Subway Restaurants, Blimpie International, Brinker International's Chili's Grill & Bar Unit. Panera Bread has added Golden Original Bread, Rosemary Walnut bread, and Asiago cheese bagel and an Italian herb breadstick. The new menu additions have between 10 and 25 total carbohydrates.  


“Low Carb Glossary.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:123.                                                                                                               

The following terms are defined: carbohydrates, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulin resistance, ketosis, lipolysis testing strips, and net effective carbs.


 “Low-Carb May Have Staying Power.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 4:15.

Mintel’s report shows that more than 50 percent of Americans have tried, or are on, or would like to try the low carbohydrate diet in the future.  Seventy-five percent of people cut back on carbs because they felt it was healthier but two thirds say they wanted to follow the diet to lose weight.


“Low-Carb To Go.”  (2004) Baking Buyer (16) 1:9.

January is the time for Americans to try and lose weight.  Since low carbohydrate diets are popular, more and more people will be trying it.   The author suggests putting low carb products on the shelf that are easy to grab and go.  7-Eleven did this in their stores recently.


“Low-Carb Yields High Profits With No Signs of Stopping; Consumables.”  (2004: January 19) Drug Store News.

The article is through news briefs at  Consumers who are on the low-carb diet can still get their comfort foods since some there are being foods developed with low levels of carbs.  The author suggests that low carb is today what low fat was 15 years ago, but bigger.  There is no solid estimate of what the low carb market is right now.  Pork rinds are up $22.9 million and dried meat snacks are up $21.7 million.


“Mache: The Beautiful Salad.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:12. 

Mache is a leafy green that first was used in the Renaissance period.  Epic Roots, a company who grows and sells it, reports that it has 3g of carbs.  A study found that a three-ounce serving of mache has 12 percent of the recommended daily allowance of omega-3 fatty acids.  More information can be found at


“Making It.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:44.

The author discusses green eggs and why it happens, what type of oils are best on the low carb diet, extra virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, and light/mild olive oils.  Included are a recipe for relleno breakfast bake (8g carbs) and a recipe for hot breakfast cereal (9g carbs) from Karen Rysavy’s Cooking TLC Volumes 1 and II found at


McCarthy, Drew.  “Shuttin’ Down the Carbs.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 4:92.

Tony Melia and Sandra Douglas are working together to bring low carbohydrate products in the pizza industry.  Their product line is called LifeStyles and has 80 percent fewer carbohydrates than regular pizza products.   They developed the product by just experimenting.


McEvoy, Hugh J.  “Et Tu, Sucre?”  (2004) Prepared Foods (173) 6:45-46, 48, 51.

Pastry arts and desserts are often high in carbohydrates.  Since they are comfort foods, people like to have them.  The increasing interest in low carbohydrate diets has led to the development of pastry arts and desserts having less carbs.  The author includes tips on low-carb sweeteners.  These include xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt, maltitol, lactitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, and erythritol.  Recipes can be found at  Nutrition information on favorite desserts can be found at


Merchant, Barbara.  “A Corn Syrup Connection?”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:114.

High fructose corn syrup is found in beverages and foods.  Researchers at the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition report that high fructose corn syrup may have played a role in increasing the cases of diabetes type 2 in the U.S.  Americans still eat about the same amount of carbs that they ate in 1990 but they are more processed.


Merchant, Barbara.  “The Metabolic Syndrome: Are You At Risk?”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:86.

The Centers for Disease Control has reported that obesity is increasing quickly in the U.S.  Obesity can cause health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure or other forms of cancer and metabolic syndrome.  This is sometimes called the Reaven syndrome.  The author discusses what this means for a person, taming metabolic syndrome, how much exercise is needed, and other therapies and their roles in helping.   Dr. Steinbaum recommends that people with a disposition to metabolic syndrome go on a low-carbohydrate, high fiber diet.


Milling, Marla Hardee.  “Dinner and a Movie: Japanese Style.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:50-51.

Given is a timeline for the night for making dinner and watching the movie, Lost in Translation.  Included are recipes for basic konbu dashi (0 carbs), shabu shabu (7.5g carbs), ponzu (3g carbs), and sesame dipping sauce (8g carbs).


Milling, Marla Hardee.  “Eat Your Veggies!  Hint: Go For the Green.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:62-67.

The author discusses the difference between good vegetables and bad vegetables, how low carb does not mean no carb, and eating green vegetables.  Included is a quick guide on how many carbs are in low carb veggies such as lettuce, cucumber, cabbage, asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, celery, leeks, eggplant, scallions, tomatoes, carrots, and beets.  She also includes the amount of carbs in high carb veggies such as onions, parsnips, green peas, acorn squash, lima beans, and succotash.  She suggests counting your servings and growing your own garden.  The following recipes are included: summer tomato salad, summer salsa, baked Vidalia, red bell pepper dip, lemon summer squash, zucchini medley, fiesta salad, Greek salad, broiled eggplant, creamed cucumbers, truly low carb parmesan garlic zucchini, sweet cauliflower and bacon salad, and crustless asparagus and ham quiche.


Milling, Marla Hardee.  “Ka-Ching.” (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:76.

The Rand Corporation report has made a prediction that by 2020, one out of every healthcare dollar will be spent on the 50- to 69-year-old for medical problems related to obesity.   In 2000, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 400,000 people died because of poor diet and physical inactivity.  A low carb lifestyle has many benefits including maybe saving you money.


Mills-Senn, Pamela.  “Carb Counters: Now Is the Time to Decide Whether to Jump on Bandwagon.”  (2004) Pizza Today (22) 7:60-62.

The pizza industry is noticing the low carbohydrate diet despite if it is a trend or becoming part of the culture.  If you want to respond to the low carbohydrate diet, first watch your customers and see what they are ordering.  Also, if sales are down consider adding low carbohydrate items to the menu.  The FDA does not currently have any definition of what is low carb.   However, you cannot label items low-carb, lower-carb, or reduced carb.  You can include the net carbs on items.


Mills-Senn, Pamela.  “In Response: A Look At Some of the “Carb Friendly” Items Pizza Companies Have Marketed.”  (2004) Pizza Today (22) 7:64-65.

There are different ways pizza operators are trying to attract low carbohydrate dieters to their restaurant.  The author discusses what some places have added to their menu.  These companies include Donatos, Figaro’s, Papa Murphy’s Take ‘N’ Bake Pizza, Pizza Magia, and Smoky Mountain.  By adding different low carbohydrate items to your menu, you might have to do a trial and error process to see what your customers want.


“Mock-A-Mocha.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:14.

This is a recipe for a low carb coffee drink.  The recipe makes two servings and has 10g of carbs per serving.


Moisher, Nancy R.N.  “Ask Nancy.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:90.

Nancy answers questions from readers about what is the best way to convert a high carb meal to a low carb meal, are there lower carb flour and what are their benefits, and can Stevia be heated and how it can be used in cooking.  She also offers tips on using hollandaise sauce, eating Chinese without the sauce, and using baking parchment.


Moisher, Nancy R.N and Rysavy, Karen.   “Sweet Spot.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:68-73.

These recipes were adapted from Moisher’s cookbook called Eat Yourself Thin Like I Did!   Her web site is  The following recipes are included: vanilla ice cream patties (0g carbs), grasshopper pie (2g carbs), chocolate cookie crust (1g carbs), chocolate topping (1g carbs), fresh rhubarb walnut cake with cream cheese frosting (4g carbs), and cream cheese frosting (0g carbs).  The following recipes are from Karen Rysavy’s Cooking TLC, volumes 1 and 2.  The recipes are lemon meltaway bars (4g carbs), heavenly mousse (4g carbs), and almond biscotti (2g carbs).


Munoz, Sara Schaefer.  “No Laughing Cow Light is No Laughing Matter for Dieters.”   (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 64:B1.

For South Beach dieters, Laughing Cow is a product that is an officially approved snack for the low carb diet.  But, consumers are having a hard time finding the product and it cannot stay stocked on the shelves.  And when consumers finally find the product, they stock up on it.  Some customers are even looking on eBay to find the product.


“Must Have: Mustard.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:12.

The author discusses French's Mustard and the different varieties it comes in.  Included is a recipe for mustard vinaigrette salad dressing (1g of carbs) and a recipe for tangy mustard marinade (13g of carbs).


Neff, Jack.  “Dr. Phil Goes to the Grocery Store.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 4:39-41.

Phil McGraw is endorsing products called Shape Up!  They are diet products.  The author asks if anyone can create diet foods.  Included is a table on Atkins & Carb solutions gain toeholds for different products for sales.  The following items are included for sales: pancake/French toast/waffle mix, bread mixes, muffin mixes, other baking mixes, fruit-flavored syrup, intrinsic health value bars, and salted snacks (no nuts).  In each category they are compared to Atkins Nutritionals and some are compared to Carb Solutions.


“Newfangled Bagel Lox Out Most Carbs.”  (2004: January 29) Sports Final Edition.

The article is through news briefs at  New World Restaurant is developing bagels with 75 percent fewer carbohydrates and will sell them at their New World Coffee, Manhattan Bagel, Einstein Bros., and Noah’s New York Bagel chains.   The bagels will have 18 to 21 grams of carbs.   The company’s average bagel has 75 grams of carbs.


Palmer, Sharon R.D.  “Taking Stock of Saturated Fats.”  (2004) Food Product Design (13) 10:30-31.

In 1961, the American Heart Association warned Americans that they needed to reduce their saturated-fat intake because evidence showed that intake was linked to heart disease.  The author discusses saturated fats, future insights, the food industry response to consumer demands, and the low-carbohydrate confusion.  The low-carbohydrate diet is hurting the American Heart Association’s fight against saturated fats.  On a low-carb diet, a person gets 53 percent of their calories from fat, which is mostly saturated.


Parker-Pope, Tara.  “The Low-Carb Resolution: Getting This Year’s New Year’s Diet on Track.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 3:D1.

The author discusses how the low-carb diet craze is hard to navigate.  She answers questions such as, “Do low-carb diets work better than low-calorie diets?”  She also discusses the South Beach diet and the Atkins diet.  Net carbs are defined as is the glycemic index in this article.  The author includes web sites to help dieters evaluate the low carbohydrate diets.  These include: Harvard’s nutritionists balanced insight into carbs and healthy eating at; the University of Sidney explains the index and lists low-GI foods at; an analysis of how it is hard to make Atkins diet healthy at; Atkins at; and a twist on the Atkins diet at


Patil, Sakharam K.  “Resistant Starches as Low-Carb Ingredients – Current Applications and Issues.”  (2004) Cereal Foods World (49) 5:292-294.

The author discusses the definition of resistant starches and includes a table on the representation of RSI, RS2, and RS3 starches.  He also discusses processing commercial resistant starches and recent developments in the industry.


Perets, Abbi.  “Low-Carb Confidential.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:42-43.

The author discusses how to get your kids to eat low carb diets.  She does not give advice on getting husbands on the diet.  Included are a recipe for Abbi’s mayo dip with 0.4 carbs and a recipe for ketchup for sweet kids with 1g carbs for one tablespoon.


Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.   “Doctors Rank Ten Worst New Low-Carb Entrées.”  (2004: March 1).

Report focuses on low carb menu options from the top ten restaurant chains.  Includes a list of the top ten entrees that are considered to be the worst options by nutritionists.   The number one item on the list is a chicken salad from Ruby Tuesday’s that contains 1,161 calories and 98 grams of fat.  The complete report can be downloaded from the Physician’s Committee for Responsible Medicine’s website at:


Pszczola, Donald E.  “Cheeseburger…Cheeseburger…No Bun.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 3:36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46-52.

The author gives some recent examples of menu items that are being called low carbohydrate meals such as the bunless hamburger served on a bed of lettuce.  He also discusses different ingredient suppliers and companies for low carbohydrate products.


Ranum, Peter.  “Cereals and Low-Carbohydrate Diets.’  (2004) Cereal Foods World (49) 2:98-99.

The author focuses on the vital role of cereal based foods.  He says to question if low carbohydrate diets work, the safety of the diets, and the long-term effectiveness of the diets.  He also discusses how to promote the health benefits of enriched cereal products and how some in the baking industry are going ahead and making low carbohydrate products to reach consumers.


“Ready … Set … Grill!”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:52-57.

Included are recipes for grilling.  These include grilled lamb (2g carbs), shrimp with prosciutto on the Barbie (less than 1g carbs), grilled salmon steaks (less than 1g carbs), lemon-lime chicken (5g carbs), grilled chicken with rosemary (on the charcoal grill and 2g carbs), sirloin steak with anise butter (2g carbs), beef top loin steaks with feta and mushroom kabobs (9g carbs), Cajun-style pork chops (2g carbs), campfire eggs (1g carbs), turkey burgers with feta cheese (4g carbs), grilled Portobello mushroom caps (4g carbs) and chicken ole (4g carbs).


Reents, Jennifer Newton.  “Caffeine: What’s the Buzz?”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:88-89.

Some low carb diets do not allow caffeine while others allow it in moderation.  The author discusses caffeine, the science of caffeine, and cutting caffeine.  Included is a recipe for sugar-free cinnamon roll latte and a recipe for sugar-free crème caramel latte.


Richards, Corinna.  “A Plate Full of Posies.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:74-75.

The author suggests eating flowers because they can be good for you.  She includes different types of flowers, how to cook them, and their health benefits.  The flowers include calendula, chamomile, chrysanthemum, dandelion, dianthus, elderflower, Johnny jump ups, lavender, nasturtium, rose, and squash blooms.  She also includes a list of ones not to eat.


Robinson, Doug.  “Carbs Evil - No, Hold On, They’re Good.”  (2004: February 3)

The article is through news briefs at  The author points out that according to the Associated Press that researchers are saying to eat carbs to lose weight.  The author lets out his frustration on the back and forth on the topic of carbs and what people are really supposed to do.


Rysavy, Karen.  “Put an End to Low-Carb Diet Stalls.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:80-81.

Stalls are when your weight can fluctuate for a few days.  The author discusses what stalling is.  Included is an elimination strategy for suspects for stalling such as artificial sweeteners, sugar, fruit, vegetables, calories, citric acid, nuts and seeds, salt, exercise, supplements, and attitude.  To track your food intake, you should visit,, or  At, you can search a carb counter database for common foods based on the USDA’s database.


“Sara Lee Bakery Group Launches Low-Carb, Low Calorie Bread Line.” (2004: January 6): Milling & Baking News (82) 45: 1, 11.

Sara Lee Bakery Group has launched Sara Lee Delightful white and wheat sandwich breads.  The new bread has 9 grams of carbohydrates per slice.


Seipell, Tuija.  “Tackling Low-Carb In Vancouver.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 3:15.

The Baking Association of Canada’s British Columbia chapter arranged a seminar for a forum for the low carbohydrate diet debate.  The author discusses some of what went on at the seminar and what people said for and against the diet and how the diet affects the baking industry.


Shelke, Kantha.  “Grain-Based Foods Fight Back.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 2:45-46, 48, 50, 52.

The author discusses how the low carbohydrate and high protein diet is successful because Americans want to lose weight.  She discusses how the diet works, new products that are being formulated, low carb versions of regular food, and how consumers believe that the diet is healthy because the industry's message on the diets is confusing.


Siegel, Jeff.  “Just a Fad: Is ‘Low-Carb’ the Next Victim of Desertion?”  (2004) Pizza Today (11) 35-37.

The author discusses the difference between meeting customer demand and making a new product for a diet that will end or disappear in twelve months.  The low carbohydrate diet could be just that, a fad.  Americans will do anything to lose weight except eat less and exercise more.  This is where the diets come in.  The author discusses some past diet fads also.  The low carbohydrate lifestyle was accepted pretty quickly.  The author asks if companies will be ready for the next fad.


Sinton, Shelly M.S.  “Boost Flavor The Low-Carb Way.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:46-47.

Sinton gives ideas on how to increase the flavor in your low carbohydrate meals.  She includes recipe ideas for herbs and spices, dried herbs, spices, fresh spices, high-caliber condiments, flavored extracts, aged hard cheeses, and unusual and different ingredients.


Sinton, Shelly M.S.  “Chew On This: Fiber and the Low-Carb Diet.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:34, 36.

A low carb lifestyle could put a person at risk for not getting enough fiber depending on how much the carbs are being limited.  A person should eat high quality foods that have fiber to ensure that they are getting enough in their diet.  The author discusses what fiber is, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and how much fiber is enough.  Benefits of fiber include insulin control, heart health, intestinal integrity, and weight control.  She includes six tips to increase your fiber intake.  They include reading labels to find fiber, get a book on nutritional values, eat a variety of foods, eat whole grain products, choose whole foods, and have fiber in the kitchen.


“Skinny On Low-Carb Diets Jury is Still Out On the Safety of Atkins and Similar Plans, The.”  (2004: February 4) Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio).

The article is through news briefs at  The author compares the Atkins diet to a religion instead of a diet since so many people are trying it.   People are attracted to the diet because they can do the diet without going hungry as long as they watch their carb intake.  The author discusses how supermarkets and specialty stores are buying into the craze and introducing new products.  Researchers are worried about the diet for its long-term effects on people’s health.  Right now, dieters are focused more on their weight results than research.


Sloan, A. Elizabeth.  “The Low-Carb Diet Craze.”  (2004) Food Technology (58) 1:16.

Currently, there are 25 million Americans on the Atkins low carbohydrate plan and 37-42 million Americans on a low-carb version of the diet.  Consumers say that they will definitely or probably try a new food product because of low-carb, which is now the fifth product attribute that consumers look for.  Traditional food sales have been hurt by $10 billion in sales because of low carb diets according to the New Nutrition Business.  New Nutrition Business also estimates that the low-carb segment was worth $2.5 billion in 2003 and $100 million in 2002.  SloanTrends reports that positive media coverage for the low carb diet when up from 47 percent last year to 89 percent positive this year.


Sokol, Deirdre.  “Low-Carb and Wellness Trends Transform Bakery Sales.”  (2004) Food & Drug Packaging (28-31).

Because of strong competition in the baked goods area, creative recipes and packaging have been developed.  In 2003, Americans who tried to lose weight by on a low-carbohydrate diet grew by 50 percent.  Popularity of low carbohydrate products has increase.  Some food processors are focusing on wellness through portion control for customers.  Some older products are finding increased sales with new packaging designs.


Sosland, Meyer. “Fiber Fortified.” (2004: Aug. 10) Milling & Baking News (83) 24: 48.

Discusses new bakery product introductions of products that are considered to be in the low-carbohydrate category.  Companies who have introduced products in this new category include: Flowers Foods Inc., The Kellogg Co., Pepperidge Farm, Inc., Atkins Nutritionals, Sara Lee Corp., Bimbo Bakeries, American Italian Pasta Co., Mission Foods, DNA Dreamfields Co., and Dakota Growers Pasta Co.


“Specialty Stores Cater to Latest Nutrition Trend.”  (2004: Feb. 8) The Houston Chronicle.

The article is through news briefs at www.bakingbusiness.comLow-carb specialty stores are showing up in the market.  These show that the low-carb trend is definitely here.  At the specialty stores, prices are higher than supermarket prices for the regular versions.  One person said that she thought the prices were higher because of the huge demand for low carb items.


Steinborn, Steven.  “Carbs, Calories & Regulations.”  (2004) Prepared Foods (173) 6:59-60, 62.

Food developers are affected by regulatory developments on how they formulate and market their new products.  The author discusses different regulations that might happen with the low carbohydrate diet.  The FDA has yet to define was low carb and reduced carb means.   Later this year, they are expected to make rulings on the definitions.  Many articles on calorie control can be found at  Calories Count: Report of the Working Group on Obesity can be found at


Stenton, John L.  “While the Getting is Good.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 2:22.

The author discusses how many people in the food industry have forgotten about last lessons about mistaking trends for fads.  The author believes that low-carbohydrate diets will end the same as low fat, low-cholesterol, and low-sodium.  He does think that there is a market and it will grow for low carbohydrate items but he does not think it should get out of hand.


“Stop Dieting?  Fat Chance!  Declining Sales Hurt High-Carb Products.”  (2004: January 23) The Houston Chronicle.

The article is through news briefs at www.bakingbusiness.comSome companies are blaming their lack in sales and profits to the low carb diet craze.  Riviana Foods reported that their retail was down by 9 percent for the fourth quarter.  The author gives examples of companies with high carb items and how their sales have fallen.  He even discusses the falling sales in orange juice and minute maid.  The author also lists certain foods that have decreased in sales in unit volume from 2002 to 2003 and includes their nutritional properties.  This includes bread, pasta, rice instant, rice packaged and bulk, dehydrated potatoes, orange juice frozen, and orange juice refrigerated.


“Subway Partners with Atkins Nutritionals to Offer Low-Carb, Atkins-Friendly Wraps. (2003: January 6): Milling & Baking News (82) 45: 11.

                  Subway plans to offer a new lie of low-carbohydrate, Atkins-Friendly Wraps. The wraps will be available in two varieties: Turkey and Bacon Melt Wrap with Monterey cheddar cheese, Chicken Bacon Ranch Wrap, with Swiss cheese.  The wraps contain 11 grams or less of net carbohydrates.     The tortilla "wrap" formula was changed to include wheat gluten, cornstarch, oat, sesame flour, and soy protein. 


Terhune, Chad. “Coca-Cola’s Low-Carb Soda Loses Its Fizz.  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (254) 79:B1, B9.

Coca-Cola Co. introduced its C2 cola with great expectations.  C2 is a reduced-calorie, reduced-carb cola.  The company marketed this product to consumers ages 20 to 40 who are trying to reduce their sugar consumption and still indulge in soda.  Company officials thought the product would be great for individuals on low carb diets.  According to data from Information Resources Inc., by the end October 3, 2004 C2 only had a .41 percent of the soft drink market.  This small market share compared to a .29 percent held by Pepsi Edge.   The price for the product could have contributed to low sales.  Premium pricing for C2 was stopped in September, since that time sales have slowly started to rebound.


Terhune, Chad.  “OJ Brands Fight Carbs, Each Other.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 95.

Tropicana and Minute Maid have released low carbohydrate orange juice in an attempt to increase sales from consumers.  Because of the new low carb juices, the Florida Department of Citrus started a $7 million national advertising campaign to tell consumers about the importance of vitamins and nutrients in orange juice.


Tharp, Paul.   “Atkins Impact in Pasta Plunge.”   (2004) Frozen Food Digest (19) 5:28.

The American Italian Pasta Co. cut 14 percent of its workforce and closed a factory because consumers are not eating pasta as much because of some low carb diets.  Other companies have claimed to be affected by the low carb diets as well.


“The Lowdown.”  (2004) Prepared Foods (173) 10:29.

Included is a table on the best tasting low carb products according to ACI testers.  The top one came from Coca Cola’s C2.  Included is an ACI description of each product.  It has been estimated that 59 million Americans were counting carbs last year.  American Culinary Institute conducted the taste testing.


Thomson, Peter.  “Low-Impact Carbohydrates in Bakery Applications.”  (2004) Cereal Foods World (49) 5:270, 272-273.

Obesity rates are increasing around the world.  Obesity is serious because it increases the risks of a variety of health problems such as type II diabetes.  In the world, 1.2 billion people are considered overweight and 250 million are obese.   It is currently estimated that 32 million Americans are on a low-carbohydrate, high protein diet.  The food industry has responded by introducing new products with lower carbs.  The author also discusses the declining consumption of grain-based foods, high and low glycemic-impact carbohydrates and GI, as well as sugar substitutes such as xylitol and fructose.   Included is how to formulate a low-carb soft chocolate chip cookie.


  Toops, Diane.  “Obesity News Tipped the Scales in 2003.”  (2004) Food Processing (65) 2:72.

                  A survey showed that obesity was the no. 1 food news in 2003.   The no. 2 news story was the Atkins Diet.   Trans fatty acids were voted the no. 3 most important story.  The South Beach diet made the no. 5 top story in 2003 while no. 10 was reality television based on foods.


Turcsik, Richard.  “The Breakfast Club.”  (2004) Progressive Grocer (83) 12:52, 54.

The cereal industry has joined the low carbohydrate high protein diet trend by introducing low carb cereal.  Included is a table on how low carb diets have affected total U.S. food store sales for ready to eat cereals.


  Turner, Bobby.  “Reducing Carbohydrates in Baked Goods.”  (2004) Bakers Journal (64) 2:32.

                  The author discusses the best way they have found to reduce carbs in bakery items.  They reduce the white flour and replace it with soy flour.  You can also use chickpea flour or spelt flour.  They also reduce and eliminate all the sugars and add fiber to the product.  Turner is a regional bakery coordinator for Whole Foods Market.


Unrein, John.  “How Low Can You Go?”  (2004) Baking Buyer (16) 1:45-46, 48, 50-51.

The popularity of the low carbohydrate diet has given bakeries an opportunity to create new products and increase profits.  Natural Ovens Bakery is a supplier of Original Lo-Carb Bread to in-store bakeries.   Last year in June they made 1,200 loaves in one week and now a week in November, they made 60,000 loaves.  This trend has given retailers and in-store bakeries huge opportunities.  The author discusses developing products, taste, labeling laws, and the future of the diet and new products.


Unrein, John.  “Make Choices Obvious.”  (2004) Baking Buyer (16) 4:13.

By creating your own low-carb logos, you can help your customers find low carbohydrate product easily before they give up trying to find what they want.  The author discusses what Trader Joe’s has done with their own logo for their consumers.


“Veggie Mix ‘N’ Match.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:14.

                Included are eight carb-wise vegetables that can be blended together in unique combinations to offer a tasty treat.  They include asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, green beans, mushrooms, onions, bell peppers, and spinach.


Vranica, Suzanne.  “Marketers Weigh in on Diet Craze.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 53:B4.

                  Low carbohydrate diets are definitely a craze right now.   There have now been advertisements asking consumer if they are taking the diet a little too far.  Other companies are trying to promote their products that are not so fully loaded with carbs.


Wade, Marcia A.  “Emerging Formulations - The New Starting Lineup.”  (2004) Prepared Foods (173) 4:61-62, 64, 66, 68.

                  The author discusses formulating new products that have lower carbohydrates and how this is dependent on adding nutritive ingredients and not so much on new technology.  She includes a table on the figures of sugar alcohols such as glycerine, sorbitol, and mannitol.  She also includes a figure of aspartame.  She discusses what to take into consideration when choosing a hydrocolloid.  For more information visit,, and


“Wal-Mart Activates Low-Carb Promotion.”  (2004: January 26) Supermarket News.

                  The article is through news briefs at  Wal-Mart Inc. is going to place low carbohydrate products in a high traffic area between groceries and nonfood items.  They are calling the display, “Zero Carbohydrate Action Alley.”  They are using more themes to help grow.


*Wellman, David.  “The Taming of the Trend.”  (2004) Frozen Food Age Supplement: Health, Wellness, & Low Carb. 1, 14-15.

                  Since the low carbohydrate diet has stayed popular as long as it has, some are considering it not a fad but something that may be around.  Included is a table on branded “low-carb” snack and beverage dollar sales, a table on popular low-carbohydrate categories ranked by percentage change in dollar sales, and a table on this could be the bigger opportunity for manufacturers developing “healthier” products.  Also included is a table on the top low-carb brands and lines in supermarkets.


  Wilshire, Gil M.D.  “Low-Carb Going Mainstream.”  (2004) Food Product Design (13) 11: 38-40, 43-44, 47-48, 51-52, 55-57.

The author believes that the low carbohydrate diet is a rare opportunity to improve the health of consumers.  She discusses expanding the market, understanding low carbohydrate diets, the low carb consumer, information about lipids, protein, the carbohydrate controversy, net carb claims, sweeteners, and the future of the low carbohydrate diet.  She includes a table on edible alcohols.


Wilson, Kim.  “Low-Carbers: Your Pancreas Will Thank You.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:84.

                  A study was done by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard School of Public Health.  The study showed that women who ate starchy foods were more than two and a half times more likely to develop pancreatic cancer.


Wilson, Kim.  “Nutty Buddies.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:20.

                  Nuts are a good snack for those on a low carb diet.  For two tablespoons, walnuts have 1.7 grams, peanuts have 3.4 grams, macadamia nuts have 2.3 grams, and almonds have 3.6 grams of carbs.


Wilson, Kim.  “The Calcium Connection.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:76.

                  Research shows that calcium rich foods can help your diet.  Calcium sources for low-carb friendly products include yogurt, canned sardines, broccoli, tofu, and raw oysters.  Calcium intake for a person should not be less than 2,000mg a day.


Winslow, Ron and McLaughlin, Katy.  “Atkins’s Family, Personal Doctor Say Diet Guru Was 195 Pounds.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 31:B3.

Family of Robert Atkins released hospital records that showed he weighed 195 pounds when he was admitted to the hospital after he slipped on the ice.  The doctor reported that in the three years he was treating him that his weight fluctuated by five to 10 pounds.  The doctor said he was a little overweight but he never treated him for a heart attack or hypertension.


Winslow, Ron and McLaughlin, Katy.  “New Research Lends Weight to Effect of Low-Carb Diet - In the Short Term.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 97:D1.

There have been two new studies on the Atkins low-carbohydrate diet.   These studies show that low carb diets are more effective than low fat diets in that they have more weight loss over a six-month period.   After a year however, the results of the diets even out.  The studies still leave many unanswered questions about the long-term safety of the diets.  Included is a table on new low carb product launched in 1999 through 2004.


“Your Questions/Expert Answers.”  (2004) Low Carb Energy (1) 2:92-94.

Many experts worked on different questions from readers.  The questions involve skin, hair and nails; fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome; carb intake and sex life; hypoglycemia; overweight child, arthritis and exercises; caffeine; glutens; soy products; sugar alcohols; hydrogenated oils; and hidden carbs.


Zimmerman, Ann.  “Wal-Mart is Serving Up Blimpie To Satisfy ‘Low-Carb’ Shoppers.”  (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 23:B3.

Wal-Mart is trying to keep up with consumer demand and will have outlets of Blimpie International Inc. in their stores.  The Blimpie restaurants will also offer low-carb meals for customers.  Blimpie started the low-carb menu three months, which it already accounts for 8 percent of total sales.

2003 Journal Citations:


Adams, Judi.  “Regaining the Healthful Image of Grain-Based Foods.”  (2003) Cereal Foods World (48) 9:124-127.

In the media, it is easy to find articles, reports, and information on how carbohydrates are to blame for American's obesity crisis.  The U.S. food pyramid guide is now being challenged for its recommendation of 6 to 11 servings a day for Americans.  High protein diets are one reason to blame because they claim that carbohydrates are bad.  Little information is available to the public that says differently.  Some objection to the USDA Food Guide Pyramid comes from information of the Glycemic Index.  The article includes acrylamide and trans fats, two more issues that are in the spotlight along with carbohydrates.  The grain-based food industry is responding to attacks that carbohydrates are bad for people.  They have yet to give a resound response to the public.  What is needed is a third-party nutritionist to challenge the misinformation about carbohydrates.


Associated Press.  “Egg Prices Hatch New Highs as Dieters Scramble for Protein.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 115:D4.

Because of millions of people hoping to lose weight on the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets, the prices of eggs have risen sharply.  They are reaching 20-year highs.  For the past two months, some prices have been $1.40, up from a few weeks ago of $1.20 a dozen.


Associated Press.  “Study Upsets Idea That All Calories Are Created Equal.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 74:D4.

Penelope Greene of Harvard School of Public Health did a study that was presented at the American Association for the Study of Obesity.  Her study found that people who eat an extra 300 calories a day on a very low-carb diet lose as much as people on a standard low-fat diet.  The low-carb dieters consumed an extra 25,000 calories that should have accounted for seven extra pounds but it didn’t.  Dr. Greene reported that it seems the low-carb diet lets a person eat more calories and still lose the weight.  This challenges assumptions of calories.


“Blimpie Chain Offering Low-Carb Sandwiches.” (2003) Milling & Baking News  (82) 32:10.
 Blimpie International Inc. has announced plans to introduce a low-carbohydrate menu.  The menu will have four sandwiches that are made on seven-grain onion bread that include roast beef and cheddar: turkey and provolone; Buffalo chicken and provolone, and ham and Swiss.

Cherney, Elena.  “CoolBrands Makes a Low-Carb Bet.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 34:B6.

              CoolBrands International Inc. has made a bet that Americans who are weight-conscious will want their ice cream without putting on weight.  The new low carb desserts will be produced as part of a license with the carb solutions division of NBTY Inc.  The new low carb ice cream will be super-premium because it will have 16% butterfat but it will also be labeled low-carb because it will be low enough in sugar.


“Data Indicate One Adult in Seven Following Low-Carbohydrate Diet.”  (2003) Milling & Baking News (82) 30:1, 30. 

Discusses a survey conducted by Harris Interactive which estimated that 32 million American adults are on  "high-protein low-carbohydrate" diets.  Novartis Consumer Health Inc sponsored the survey.


Ellison, Sarah.  “The Good, the Bad, and the High Glycemic.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 103:B1, B.5

              The Food and Drug Administration requires that food labels label carbohydrates according to a simple formula.  The formula is to subtract protein, fat, moisture, and ash content from the weight of the food.  The leftover portion is listed as total carbohydrates.  Because of new low carbohydrate diets, nutritionists are distinguishing between good carbohydrates and bad carbohydrates.  The difference between the two is how the body responds to the carbohydrate.  This would be the physiological effect on the body and so far the FDA only requires labeling for the chemical makeup of carbohydrates.  The FDA is working on a better definition of a carbohydrate.


“High-Protein and High-Carb Diets Go Head to Head.”  (2003) Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter (20) 11:6.

              Last year, the American Heart Association’ s annual Scientific Sessions released a report that said the Atkins low-carbohydrate diet might be a better way to lose weight.  One study author from Duke University reported that there needs to be more research done before they can make absolute conclusions.  Tufts’ writers reported that they do not think it is healthy to limit the diet on vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.


Jones, Julie Miller.  “Nutrition Column.”  (2003) Cereal Foods World (48) 1:36-38.

              Jones discusses many topics in her nutrition column.  The headings of the columns include carbohydrate and protein interactions-flavor, antioxidants, and potential adverse effects; iron deficiency may contribute to Alzheimer's disease damage; fiber intake may help cure appetite in women; fiber as an antibiotic; oats recognized for by consumers as important for heart health; carbohydrates and weight gain and losses; sucrose versus artificial sweeteners in beverages and weight gain; fructose and gas; and what is the right amount of protein, fat, and carbohydrates for weight loss.


“Low-Carb Craze, or Low-Carb Crazy?”  (2003) Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter (21) 8:4-5.

              The article reminds the reader of the low fat diet craze in the 1990s and how the fad faded away.  Currently, the low-carbohydrate diet is all the craze.  One can now find many low carbohydrate products on the market.  The article includes a chart that shows foods and their carbohydrate content.  It also shows that just because it is low carb does not mean that it has fewer calories.  Foods that are listed in the chart include Miller Lite Beer, Michelob Ultra Low Carbohydrate Light Beer, Kellogg’s Cocoa Rice Krispies, Keto Cocoa Crisp Crispy Soy Cereal, Barilla Elbows, Keto Elbows, Mount Olive Old Fashioned Sweet Bread & Butter Pickles, Mount Olive No Sugar Added Bread & Butter Pickles, Reese’s Miniature Peanut Butter Cups, Reese’s Miniature Sugar-Free Peanut Butter Cups, Hershey’s Special Dark Chocolate, Hershey’s Sugar-Free Dark Chocolate, Pillsbury Muffin Mix, and Atkins Quick Quisine Muffin.  The article also includes how manufacturers remove carbs from foods and the difference between full-carb and low-carb foods.


“Low-Carbohydrate Headlines Agenda of First National Bread Summit. (2003: December 2) Milling & Baking News (82) 40: 1, 17. 

One of the topics covered at the National Bread Summit held on November 21, were low-carbohydrate bakery products. Several companies reported planning to introduce new products in this area. A panelist discussion highlighted the problems with focusing on these types of products.   The owner of Farm to Market bread announced that their company has already introduced Hummus Bread that is part of the wheat flour is replaced by chickpea flour, which reduces the number of carbohydrates.  A report released by the National Bread Leadership Council of a telephone survey that focused on consumers perception of grains and grain-based foods and a survey conducted by the Bread Bakers Guild of America where also highlighted at the Summit.


Mathews, Anna Wilde.  “Carbohydrate Confusion.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 103:B1, B5.

              New products are showing up on the shelves for people who are interested in low carbohydrate diets.  These new products are low-carb versions from many foods.  The problem with these foods is that there really is no set definition of low-carb.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has never set guidelines as to what are low carbohydrate foods.  It has in the past sent warning letters to companies saying that their low-carb claims are illegal.


Mathews, Anna Wilde and Steingberg, Brian.  “FTC Examines Health Claims In KFC’s Ads.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 100:B1, B2.

The Federal Trade Commission is investigating KFC’s commercials that implied that eating fried chicken was healthy and it would help consumers lose weight.  The FTC has started a civil subpoena that asks KFC to explain and justify its health claims in the commercials.  In the commercials, KFC claimed that their fried chicken was healthier than a Whopper from Burger King.  KFC also stated that its fried chicken breast was low in carbs.  The disclaimers on the television ads were small.  The FTC is investigating to see if KFC mislead consumers.


“Mayo Clinic Publication Cites Shortcomings of Low-Carb Diets. (2003: October 14) Milling & Baking News (82) 1, 24-25

An article that appeared in the October issue of the Mayo Clinic Women’s Health Source reports that long-term results of the diet are about the same as with any diet.   Includes the text of the article that discusses the pros and cons of the diet.


“McDonald’s Set To Unveil Low-fat, Low-carb and Low-calorie Menus.” (2003: October 14) Milling & Baking News (82) 33: 1, 11.

              McDonald’s Corp. plans to launch several menu in January in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.  The new menus will include low-carbohydrate, reduced fat or low-calorie options.


McLaughlin, Katy.  “The Atkins Spousal Syndrome.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 55:D1, D10.

              Atkins Spousal Syndrome is when the spouse is not on the Atkins’ low-carb diet, but his or her spouse is.  The spouse who is not on the diet can have raised blood pressure or halitosis.  Atkins  Nutritionals say not to do the diet halfway, eat low-carbs and lots of high-fat foods.  Nutritionals also say that the bad breath usually only lasts the first two weeks of the diet.


Neff, Jack.  “Belt-Tightening & The Diet Aisle.”  (2003) Food Processing (64) 10:35-40.

              After Robert C. Atkins died in April, The New England Journal of Medicine and Harvard Health Letter published research in June showing that Atkin's low-carb diet might be effective in reducing weight and cholesterol.  The diet has been under heavy criticism.  The USDA has always encouraged a high carbohydrate/low-fat diet while the low-carb diet encourages low-carb/high-fat diets.  In 1999, there were only 47 low- or no-carb food and beverage products were in the market.  For 2002, there were 339 in the market.  In 2000, there were 6.6% sugar-free candy products.  In 2003, there were 15% sugar-free candy products.  Atkins Nutritionals say that 12.7% of the U.S. adult population (25.4 million people) are either on the Atkins diet or have tried the Atkins diet.  Another 18.4 % (36.7 million) say that they plan to try the diet.  There are also more people who follow low-carb variations on the Atkins diet.

 “One-Third Watching ‘Carb’ Intake.”  (2003) Milling & Baking News (82) 32:8.

              H.J. Heinz Co. is introducing Heinz One Carb Ketchup.  The new ketchup will have 75% less carbohydrates than regular Heinz Ketchup.


“Panera Net Up 36% in Quarter; Plans to Launch Low-Carb Bread.  (2003: December 2) Milling & Baking News (82) 40: 10.

Panera Bread Co. plans to launch three low carbohydrate bread varieties and two low-carbohydrate bagel varieties in 2004.  Each new variety of bread will contain less than 10 net carbohydrates per serving.  The company did report a net income of  $7,017,000 for the third quarter that ended October 4, 2003.  


Parker-Pope, Tara.  “Forget the Wonder Bread: Atkins Diet Has a Point, Despite Scientific Backlash.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (241) 73: D1.

Nearly 12 million Americans are cutting carbohydrates to lose weight.  The Journal of the American Medical Association concluded that the low-carb diet is similar to just cutting high-calorie foods.


“Powerbar to Introduce Low-Carbohydrate energy bar in early 2004. (2003) Milling & Baking News. (82) 41:10.

Power Bar Inc. plans to introduce the PowerBar Carb Select line in 2004.   The new line will include five varieties with items directed specifically toward men or women.


Sosland, Meyer.  “Interest in Low-Carbohydrate Grows.”  (2003) Milling & Baking News.  (82) 32:24, 26-28.

                This product perspective profiles low-carb products.    One of the leading companies in this category Keto Foods & Snacks in Neptune, NJ reported that sales are up 280% for the first half of 2003.    Keto offers a wide variety of product including "snack bars, snack chips, cookies, ready-to-eat cereal and hot cereal, mixes for muffins, pancakes, bread, bread crumbs, pizza dough, pasta and potato substitute."  The company plans to introduce more low-carb products soon.   Even though the Food and Drug Administration does not have regulation that defines the term "low carb" there are several companies that are introducing new products.  Some of the companies selling products in this category include Atkins Nutritionals, Inc., O' So Lo Foods Inc., Flowers Bakeries, Expert Foods Inc., Don Poncho (subsidiary of Puentes Bros. Inc.), La Tortilla Factory, and Low Carb Lifestyle Distributors.


Vickery, Lisa.  “Pasta for a Low-Carb Diet.”  (2003) The Wall Street Journal (241) 83: D8.

Low-carbohydrate pastas have fewer calories then regular pasta.  Low carb pasta has 160 calories for three-fourths a cup and regular pasta has 200 or 210 calories.  People for the low carb diet says it stabilizes energy swings, lowers blood pressure and can even cut the risk of breast cancer.  Low carb dieters also get more protein.  The food does cost a lot more than the regular food.


Zammer, Colleen.  “Carbohydrate Cravings…and How to Satisfy Them in Low-Carb Prepared Meals.”  (2003) Food Processing’s Wellness Foods 29-31.

A low-carb diet is designed to minimize the consumption of carbohydrates of all kinds and to maximize the consumption of protein, which turns a person’s body into a fat-burning machine.  By lessening the intake of carbohydrates, the body cannot store as much and converts fat to fuel.  This helps the body get rid of unwanted pounds.  There are challenges for food companies to develop new products to meet consumer demand for low-carb foods.  Not only do consumers what products that are low-carb, but they also want meals that are tasteful and convenient.  Low-carb diets allow vegetables that are low-starch, which have a high water content and are hard to keep from getting soggy before they reach consumers.  Sauces, which are usually used to help keep frozen foods moist, are a problem too because they are usually high in starch.  A food company can add sugar alcohols to the sauces but too much servings of this can have a laxative effect.  The author encourages food companies to talk to consumers to meet their wants.  They can do this by asking them how low do they want the carbohydrate level and what trade-offs are they willing to make to increase the tastiness of the food.

Page last updated July 9, 2010

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