A Reference Resource List
Compiled by Emerson Library
ice cream. (2011, April). Prepared Foods, 180
new line of naturally sweetened ice creams from Iskream Inc made with rebiana. Includes
statistics of various ice cream categories, including premium (41.4%), light (7%), reduced
fat (0.7%), low-fat (3%) and not-fat (2%).
R.S. (2011, April). Ensuring the safety of sweeteners from stevia. Food Technology, 65 (4), 42-49.
details the intensive research and documentation that led to the acceptance of high-purity
stevia-derived sweeteners by the FDA and international regulatory bodies. Includes a
detailed timeline of stevia's path to GRAS status, highlighting various regulatory
protocols. Includes information from the FDA on identity and intended food uses of
stevia-derived sweeteners, including a chart entitled "GRAS Status for Stevia-Derived
Sweeteners Used in Food." Provides a summary of the regulatory review of stevia and
steviol glycosides' biological, toxicological and clinical data. Includes the estimated
daily intake safety assessment for Rebaudioside A and safety studies for steviol
market increased in 2010. (2011, March 25). Food Chemical News. 53(3).
data obtained Zenith International sales of the sweetener stevia increased 27% to $285 million in 2010.
The company predicts growth will be $825 million by 2014.
sales rose 27% last year, says Zenith. (2011, April). Nutritional Outlook, 14( 3), 16.
Zenith, a market analysis company, sales of the all natural no-calorie sweetener stevia
rose 27% from 2009 to reach a market value of $285 million.
Sanjiv. Sweetener synergy. (August 2010) Manufacturing
Confectioner. (90) 8:60-70.
synergy, or blending various sweeteners can increase sweetness intensity, modify
intensity, improve quality, stability, flavor perception and aftertaste. Through sweetener
synergy, manufacturers may be able to develop reduced sugar and reduced calorie
confections while maintaining quality and lowering costs. Describes the properties of the
following nutritive sweeteners: sucrose, corn syrups, high-fructose corn syrup,
crystalline fructose, and dextrose. Also includes key properties of the following
high-potency sweeteners: sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, neotame, cyclamate,
saccharin, stevioside and rebaudioside A, and luo han guo. Includes the following charts:
Sweetness Potency of Nutritive and High-Potency Sweeteners; Sweetness Profile Comparison
of Nutritive Sweeteners; Sweetness Profile Comparison of High-intensity Sweeteners;
Synergistic Sweetener Comparisons; Sweetener Synergy between Fructose and Sucrose;
Representation of No Synergy and Synergy with Isoboles; Pectin Jelly Formulas;
Determination of Equisweet Amount of Fructose to Match Sucrose Control; Sucrose/Fructose
Isoboles for Synergy Determination; Pectin Jelly Formulas with Test Blends for Synergy
Determination; Pectin Jelly Formulas with Different Sweetener Blends; Chocolate
Compound-coating Formulas; Sweetener Combinations in Pectin Jelly Formulas; Reduction in
Sugars and Calories in Pectin Jellies; Sweetener Combinations in Chocolate
Compound-coating Formulas; Reduction in Sugars and Calories in Chocolate Compound Coating.
Mark. Building healthier desserts. (August 2010) Wellness Foods insert in Food Processing. (71) 8: WF3-WF8 (Insert
begins on p. 36).
processors are branching out to create desserts with a healthier profile, utilizing whole
grains, fiber, no- or low-calorie sweeteners (inulin, stevia, Splenda), soy, fruit,
vanilla and malt extracts. According to Innova Market Insights, 30% of new product
launches in 2009 made some type of health claim, including: no preservatives, low calorie,
low cholesterol, gluten-free and vitamin/mineral fortified." Includes interview with
Aaron Clanton, baking curriculum manager at AIB International.
approval of stevia expected. (May 2010) Manufacturing
Confectioner. (90) 5:18.
Overview of a
European Food Safety Agency report on the safety of the sweetener stevia, which gave the
product a favorable review. This could lead to "an EU-wide approval of stevia within
the next 6 to 9 months."
Christina. Understanding sweet carbohydrates. (April 2010) Food Product Design. (20) 4:24-26.
sweet carbohydrates, including fructose, sucrose, glucose and lactose. According to a USDA
Economic Research report in 1998, "45% of added sweeteners consumed go into
beverages, 18% into cereal and baked goods, and 11% into confectionery goods."
Discusses metabolism of carbohydrates and obesity rates.
Jeff. (July 27, 2010). Stevia Needs a Partner in Baking Milling & Baking News. (89) 11: 25-26, 28, 30.
According to data obtained
from The Nielson Company, sales of natural products for the 52 weeks ending June 12, 2010,
were $20,310,202,058. The Nielson Company also
reported that U.S. sales of food and beverage products containing the sweetener Stevia
were $281,441,495 for the same time period, an increase from $85,552,067, for the same
period of time a year earlier. The number of grain-based foods that have been introduced
have increased. In re-formulating grain-based products to include stevia-based sweeteners,
food manufacturers need to add a bulking agent to
their formula. New products containing Stevia that have been introduced include three
varieties of cookies from Penny's Low Fat Desserts. Comments
on the introduction of grain-based products containing Stevia are included from Penny
Pearl, founder of Penny's Low Fat Desserts; Magomet Malsagov, chief executive officer and
managing director of PureCircle, and Jim May, president and chief executive officer of
Wisdom Natural Foods. Includes a table listing
Stevia brands by company. A side bar entitled,"Cost-Effective Stevia Options
Increase" profiles the Stevia products BlendSure from GLG Life Tech Corp and SG95
from PureCircle USA.
HFCS and weight
gain. (May 2010) Prepared Foods. (179)
A study by
Princeton University has found that rats eating HFCS gained more weight than those eating
table sugar of equal caloric value.
Jones, J. M. Added sugars,
nutrient intakes, and grain-based foods. (September/October 2010) Cereal Foods World. (55) 5:226-230.
sugars in processed foods gain criticism by health experts, formulators of cereal products
struggle to replace these sugars due to their functional roles. Grains and cereals
comprise nearly 20% of U.S. consumption of added sugars. Another health concern about the
average U.S. diet is the low intake levels of various nutrients, including: Vitamins A, C,
D, E, K, choline and dietary fiber. "For the 13% of the population with high or very
high added sugars intakes, nutrient intakes are even lower and are associated with even
lower levels of nutrient adequacy than the population as a whole." This article
suggests that grain-based foods are uniquely situated to address nutrient deficiencies
once the added sugars are reduced.
Lynn. Stevias sweet story. (June 2010) Food Product Design. (20) 6:16-20.
the development of the all-natural sweetener stevia, which received GRAS status by the FDA
and the European Food Safety Authority. Discusses the sweetness level, health benefits,
bulking agents, flavor and applications.
standard for popular stevia-based sweetener. (December 2009/January 2010) Food Safety Magazine. (15) 6:8.
Pharmacopeial (USP) Convention will include a new standard for the plant-based sweetener
Stevia (Rebaudioside A) in the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC).
Toops, Diane. Holy
grail of sweeteners? (February 2010) Food
Processing. (71) 2:18-21.
the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, more than two-thirds of American adults,
one third of children and 10% of babies are obese or overweight. Sugars and high fructose
corn syrup are being criticized for contributing to the obesity epidemic. The Dietary
Guidelines for Americans will set a limit on added sugar for the first time. According to
a 2004 government survey, the average American consumes 22 teaspoons of added sugar, 355
calories daily. Demand for alternative sweeteners have increased 4% each year in the past
decade. This article provides an overview of the all natural sweetener reb-A from the
stevia plant, which was granted GRAS status in December 2008. The stevia based Truvia from
Coca-Cola and Cargill has gained 6.1% of the overall sugar substitute marked, with sales
reaching $25.5 million. Stevia's arrival came at a time of exploding popularity for
all-natural claims, with the all natural market in 2008 hitting $22 billion, a 10%
increase from the previous year. While stevia had a strong first year, application to
non-beverage products has been slow.
Toops, Diane. Much
ado about HFCS. (April 2010) Food Processing.
the debate on high fructose corn syrup and obesity link. According to the American Medical
Association, "the composition of sugar and HFCS are so similar there is no reason to
suggest that high fructose corn syrup is more correlated with obesity than sugar."
This has been supported by the following individuals: Michael Jacobson, Center for Science
in the Public Interest; Walter Willett, Harvard School of Health; Marion Nestle, New York
Toops, D. Truvia
sweetens Breyers YoCrunch. (March 2010) Food
Processing. (71) 3:23.
Cargill and Breyers Yogurt Co.'s new line of YoCrunch 100 Calorie Packs, which is made
with the all-natural sweetener Truvia rebiana (stevia).
Comparison of sweeteners in bakery products. (January/February 2010) AIB
Research Department Technical Bulletin. (32) 1:1-9.
Overview of a
study conducted at AIB International which analyzed the effect of sweetener selection
(sucrose vs. HFCS) on the following baked goods: white pan bread, hamburger buns, yellow
cakes, and chocolate chip cookies. "Differences in key attributes like water
absorption, mixing time, proofing time, product volume, external and internal appearance,
and eating quality were documented throughout the process." Discusses the basic
attributes of sucrose, regular corn syrup, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).
Lets clarify added-sugar myths. (March 2010) Food Processing. (71) 3:15.
is written in response to the growing criticism of added-sugars, specifically the Food
Processing article "Holy Grail of Sweeteners?" in the February 2010 issue. This
article discusses common myths about added-sugars. "Calories from HFCS and added
sugars are just one-tenth of the total calorie increase since 1975, so clearly are not the
primary cause of obesity." The American Medical Association has found that the
composition, calories and metabolism of added sugars are similar, including sugar,
high-fructose corn syrup, honey and fruit juice concentrates.
2009 Journal Citations:
Donna. Naturally sweet. (November 2009) Food
Product Design. (19) 11:64-70.
According to a
survey conducted by the Shelton Group, more consumers preferred the product claim of
natural (31%) to organic (25%), because they mistakenly believed that it was more
regulated. While there is not an official definition of natural- it is most often
described as containing no artificial additives, preservatives, colors or synthetic
substances. Discusses the following sweeteners: stevia, isomaltulose, erythritol,
malted-barley extracts and syrups, brown rice syrups, tapioca syrups, agave, maple syrup,
California Reb-A is GRAS. (August 2009) Food
Processing. (70) 8:20.
that Blue California's Good&Sweet rebaudioside-A (97%) has been granted GRAS status by
the FDA. So far, only three companies have achieved GRAS status for purified stevia plan
extract: Blue California, Cargill and Merisant.
David. Formulating strategies. (September/October 2009) Cereal Foods World. (54) 5: 230-231.
substitutes for high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which has gained a negative public image.
Includes: dextrose and fructose; invert syrup and medium invert syrup; brown rice syrup;
inulin syrups; polydextrose syrup; and fructose syrup.
Ronald. Seamlessly sugar-free sweets. (June 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 6:50-58.
discusses how to formulate sugar-free confections, with tips on matching the functionality
of sugar. Discusses polyols, low-digestible carbohydrates, and high-potency sweeteners.
Discusses FDA regulations on sugar claims. Discusses rebaudioside A (stevia),
polydextrose, inulin, resistant maltodextrin, saccharine, sucralose, acesulfame K,
aspartame, and neotame.
Fedar, David. How to
build a healthy breakfast. (August 2009) Wellness
Foods Insert in Food Processing. (70) 8: WF2-WF8 (Insert begins on p. 36).
driving trends of the breakfast category are: increased functional properties and less
processing/less ingredients/more organic. Includes interview with Kent Spalding, director
of marketing of Weetabix North America/Barbara's Bakery, who believes these trends can be
incorporated together in new product development with natural nutraceuticals.
"National Starch states that sales of cereals with nutritional benefit claims, such
as added fiber, heart health, satiety, formulated for men/women, increased by more than 13
percent in 2007- double the growth of the cereal category as a whole." Discusses
'better-for-you grains, such as kamut, quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat, teff and sorghum. Most
of these grains have the added benefit of being gluten-free, a category which since 2004
has achieved an annual growth rate of 28%. Gluten-free sales in 2008 reached $1.56
billion. Discusses the natural zero-calorie sweetener Stevia and its potential to cut the
sugar content in cereals from 25-40%. Packaging efficiencies such as biodegradable,
non-GMO bioplastics and smaller packaging are expected to gain popularity.
Jeff. Sweeteners on offense. (May 5, 2009) Milling & Baking News. (88) 5:19-22.
launch of several Stevia-based sweeteners into the U.S. market, and the Corn Refiners
Association's (CRA) efforts to improve the perception of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS).
Reviews both of these sweeteners benefits in grain-based food production. After the FDA
allowed stevia-based sweeteners into the U.S. food supply, the majority of the products
utilizing this natural, zero-calorie sweetener were beverages. Yet baked foods could
benefit as well, and the article discusses potential formulation challenges. HFCS, an
industry staple was encountered an increasingly negative public perception, based in part
due to a confusion of scientific research. Breads which claimed to be HFCS-free gained an
177% sales increase, from 2007-2008. "Per capita consumption of HFCS in the United
Sates has decreased from 62.7 lbs in 2000 to 56.3 lbs in 2007." The CRA has began a
campaign to improve the image of HFCS, and inform the public about the comparative health
profile as compared to other sweetener options. Provides suggestions for sweetener options
for grain-based food applications, including: briessweet syrups and solids, raisin juice,
xtend sucromalt, and litesse poludextrose. Includes a graph of "U.S. per-capita
sweetener consumption" which shows refined sugar and HFCS from 2000-2007.
Betsy. FDA clears use of herb to sweeten drinks in the U.S. (December 18,
2008) Wall Street Journal. (252) 144: B1.
The FDA has
approved the sweetener derived from the stevia plant as safe for use. Coca-Cola Corp.
plans to use this sweetener in Sprite Green and in Odwalla juice drinks. PepsiCo is also
planning to utilize this zero-calorie, natural sweetener in several products, including
Where are stevia-derived sweeteners headed? (April 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 4:18-20.
As the global
use of stevia-based sweeteners increases, this article attempts to clear up certain
questions regarding its safety. The following questions are discussed: Are stevia and all
stevia-derived sweeteners now GRAS? With the increased incorporation of stevia-derived
sweeteners in foods, will the increased consumption result in food uses that exceed GRAS
levels? What other developments with steviol glycosides are emerging? and What safety or
regulatory concerns remain with reb A and the steviol glycosides?
Stevia acceptance moves forward. (February 2009) Food Technology. (63)2:12.
with rebaudioside A, an extract from the stevia plant has been granted GRAS status by the
FDA. Products that will utilize stevia include "PepsiCo's Zero-Calorie SoBe Lifewater
and Tropicana Trop 50 and Cargill's Truvia table-top sweetener."
Nachay, Karen. Off
notes blocked. (April 2009) Food Technology.
all-natural sweetener Stevia has received FDA approval, some manufacturers are hesitant to
work with the product because it has flavor off-notes. However, Swiss ingredient supplier
Givaudan has developed flavor ingredients to block the bitter taste receptors that reb-A
Stevia sales soar, acceptance low. (November 2009) Food Technology. (63) 11:12.
Mintel, sales of the all natural sweetener stevia reached $95 million by mid-June 2009,
with 2008 sales only reaching $21 million. Despite this substantial increase, a Mintel
study reveals that consumer awareness and confidence remains low. The survey found that:
62% have no interest in trying stevia, 11% believe it is unsafe, 25% might be interested
but have not tried it, and 11% have tried it and will continue to purchase it.
Stevia expands functional-food options. (August 2009) Functional
Foods Annual Supplement for Food Product Design. (19) 8:30-31.
a zero-calorie natural sweetener has huge potential in the functional foods category.
Discusses the differences between the available stevia products, specifically the
chemicals used in the extraction process. Includes details for baking applications,
discussing sweetness level and lack of Milliard browning.
Petrak, Lynn. A sweet deal. (November 2009) PLBuyer. (23) 11:74-77.
discusses the variety of sweeteners available to baker and snack manufacturers, as the
category's main drivers include convenience, cost-efficiency, a health/wellness. According
to Paul Bright, Fleischmann's Yeast, "consumers have expressed preferences for
natural and organic baked goods over the past couple of years." Discusses
low-/no-calorie sweeteners and the growing importance of natural products. Includes an
overview of the debate surrounding High Fructose Corn Syrup.
Stevia market to
break $100 million this year. (November 2009) Nutraceuticals World. (12) 9:14-15.
provides a performance review of the new sweetener Stevia, after it received GRAS status
from the FDA in December 2008. Stevia sales reaches $95 million by July 2009, with sales
expected to increase to 2 billion by the end of 2011. Includes statistics on consumers'
awareness/attitudes about stevia.
Swann, Lauren. Sweet
cravings. (August 2009) Prepared Foods.
sweets achieved $9.7 billion in sales in the U.S. market. According to the USDA, the
"available calories from all forms of added sugars increased 17% from
1970-2006," major factors implicated in the rates of overweight people and diabetics.
Discusses the various sweetener options, such as: fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn
syrup (HFCS), stevia, erythiritol, sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame-K, agave, brazzein,
and thaumatin. Includes chart entitled "Sweet Taste Profile: Maximal Response."
stevia. (February 2009) Food Technology.
The FDA has
granted GRAS status to the naturally derived sweetener rebaudioside A (rebiana). The
following companies plan product launches: PepsiCo.'s SoBe Lifewater drink; Odwalls'
Mojito Mambo and Pomegranate Strawberry Juice; and Coca-Cola's Sprite Green.
naturally. (February 2009) Prepared Foods.
PureVia, the stevia-based sweetener created by Whole Earch. This all-natural, zero-calorie
sweetener has recently been granted GRAS status in the U.S. by the FDA. "This
sweetener is suitable for those with diabetes and is not genetically modified in its
stevia rush is on. (January 2009). Food
Processing. (70) 1:12.
(reb-A), a purified derivative of the stevia plant has been granted GRAS status by the
FDA. Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi have created beverages which feature the natural sweetener.
Coca-Cola has created Sprite Green, which is marketed towards young adults. PepsiCo has
partnered with Whole Earth Sweetener to create stevia-based PureVia. Cargill has released
Truvia, a tabletop sweetener brand made from stevia. Other companies developing stevia
products include: Blue California, CA; PureCircle, Malaysia; Pyure Brands LLC, FL; Wisdom
Natural Brands, AZ; and GLG Life Tech, Vancouver.
standards for stevia-based sweeteners. (June/July 2009) Food Quality. (16) 3:13-14.
the U.S. Pharmacopeial (ISP) Convention's standard entitled "Food Chemicals Codex
(FCC)" which includes the written testing standard for high purity rebaudioside A
Low-cal sweet tooth satisfaction. (September 2008) Food Product Design. (18) 9:24-33.
concern at the global increase of obesity rates, food processors are looking for
low-calorie sweeteners that taste and function similar to sugar. This article reviews the
following sweetener options: acesulfame K, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, saccharin,
fructose, sugar alternatives which provides bulk, stevia, and ingredients which enhance
sweetness. According to a Mintel report Sugar and Sweeteners-U.S., "sales of white
sugar fell by 16% from 2002 to 2006, sugar substitute sales increased 22% during the same
Sweetener blends with erythritol. (April 2008) Food Product Design. (18) 4:30-34.
a polyol, which tastes similar to sugar, and has a low caloric content ratio of 0.2 kcal
per gram. Erythritol qualifies as an all-natural and an organic ingredient. "Using
erythritol in combination with other sweeteners opens a wide range of advantages and
features: natural sweetening, improved taste, low-glycemic-index sweetness, etc."
Includes chart entitled "Digestive Tolerance of Polyols" and analyzes erythitol,
polydextrose, maltitol, isomalt, xylitol, lacitol, and sorbitol. Another chart included is
"Groups of sweeteners available for blends with erythritol (sweetness vs.
sugar)" and lists natural sweeteners, high intensity sweeteners, polyols, and plant
Peter. The sugarfree toolbox- bulk ingredients and intense sweeteners.
(November 2008) Manufacturing Confectioner. (88)
sugar free confections, emphasizing functional requirements of low-digestible
carbohydrates and high-potency sweeteners. Topics include a basic overview of sugars,
labeling claims, functional properties, solubility, molecular weight, polyols,
low-digestible sugars (fructose, tagatose, ismaltulose), low-digestible
carbohydrates-fiber (polydextrose, inulin, resistant maltodextrin, hydrocolloids), and
high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, and
Sugar Substitutes. (January 2008) Baking
Buyer. (20) 1:48-51.
Calorie Sweetener, or sucralose is made by, "a patented, multi-step process that
selectively replaces three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the sugar molecule with three
chlorine atoms." This article outlines how to bake with Splenda, including a chart
that gives Splenda granulated weight conversions. Using honey as a sugar substitute is
also included, and provides tips from the National Honey Board (www. nhb.org).
Sugar-free Foods and Beverages. (January 2008) Prepared Foods, (177)
sales climbed to $8.8 billion in 2006, which reflects the nations growing concern with
diabetes and weight-loss. In the past, sugar-free sales usually spike after a new
ingredient innovation is introduced. However, the recent rise is not obviously linked to a
new innovation, rather the category is gaining strength as a whole. Though not currently
approved as a food ingredient in the U.S. or the E.U., Stevia is showing great potential
as a natural sweetener. Sugar-free gum shows impressive sales, as it is commonly used as
an appetite suppressant and is beginning to include various vitamins and minerals. While
the sugar-free carbonated beverage remains popular, individual brand success is rather
unpredictable. The current trend is for a new product to be immensely popular for a year
or two, and then disappear. Article includes the following statistics: Sale of sugar-free
foods and beverages (2004 & 2006); Biggest players in the sugar-free industry (2004
& 2006); U.S. new product launches of no-/low-/reduced-sugar gum, chocolate
confectionery, non-chocolate confectionery and carbonated beverages (2001-2006).
from stevia. (August 2008) Food Technology. (62) 8:16.
awaited stevia sweetener has been released by Cargill, named Truvia. Nearly 200 times
sweeter than sugar, this naturally calorie-free product is available as a tabletop
Sweeteners for the 21st century. (November 2008) Food Technology. (62)11:49-57.
emerging and future possibilities in the sweetener category, with in-depth coverage of the
recently GRAS-approved Stevia, an natural zero-calorie sweetener. Topics include:
screening sweeteners and blends, Brazzein, energy extension, Erythritol, Isomalt, maple
syrup, and honey.
Stevia on two
fronts: Truvia in NYC markets, PureVia in Peru. (September 2008) Food Processing. (69) 9:16.
launched a stevia based sweetener called PureVia in Peru. In New York, Coca-Cola and
Cargill Inc. have released the stevia table-top sweetener Truvia. Both soda companies must
wait for the sweetener to gain FDA approval before the sugar substitute can be used in
Nabors, L. Regulatory Status of
Alternative Sweeteners. (May 2007) Food
Technology. (61) 5:24-32.
important to monitor how sweeteners are regulated on both national and international
levels. "Alternative sweeteners are among the most thoroughly studied and
scrupulously regulated ingredients in our food supply." Article examines the
regulatory terms such as Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), General Purpose Approval, and
Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). "Five low-calorie sweeteners and eight polyols
[are] approved for us in the United State, [and] additional sweeteners are approved in
other parts of the world." Article examines the roles of institutions such as FECFA,
and the Codex Alimentarious Commission.
Alternatively Sweet. (December 2005) Baking & Snack. (27) 11:77-81.
much more in baked foods than add sweetness; it works as a bulking agent, impacts water
activity, texture characteristics, browning and the gelatinization of flour. Recreating all of these functions in a sugar
substitute can be difficult and in many instances multiple sweeteners are used in
conjunction with bulking agents.
July 7, 2011
Click to obtain
sources for reprints
of articles cited