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Sugar Subsititutes/Sweeteners

A Reference Resource List

Compiled by Emerson Library Staff






2011 Journal Citations:


…For ice cream. (2011, April). Prepared Foods, 180 (4), 14.

An innovative new line of naturally sweetened ice creams from Iskream Inc made with rebiana. Includes statistics of various ice cream categories, including premium (41.4%), light (7%), reduced fat (0.7%), low-fat (3%) and not-fat (2%).


McQuate, R.S. (2011, April). Ensuring the safety of sweeteners from stevia. Food Technology, 65 (4), 42-49.

This article details the intensive research and documentation that led to the acceptance of high-purity stevia-derived sweeteners by the FDA and international regulatory bodies. Includes a detailed timeline of stevia's path to GRAS status, highlighting various regulatory protocols. Includes information from the FDA on identity and intended food uses of stevia-derived sweeteners, including a chart entitled "GRAS Status for Stevia-Derived Sweeteners Used in Food." Provides a summary of the regulatory review of stevia and steviol glycosides' biological, toxicological and clinical data. Includes the estimated daily intake safety assessment for Rebaudioside A and safety studies for steviol glycosides.


Stevia market increased in 2010. (2011, March 25). Food Chemical News. 53(3).

According to data obtained Zenith International sales of the sweetener stevia increased 27% to $285 million in 2010.   The company predicts growth will be $825 million by 2014.


Stevia sales rose 27% last year, says Zenith. (2011, April). Nutritional Outlook, 14( 3), 16.

According to Zenith, a market analysis company, sales of the all natural no-calorie sweetener stevia rose 27% from 2009 to reach a market value of $285 million.

2010 Journal Citations:


Avashia, Sanjiv. “Sweetener synergy.” (August 2010) Manufacturing Confectioner. (90) 8:60-70.

Sweetener synergy, or blending various sweeteners can increase sweetness intensity, modify intensity, improve quality, stability, flavor perception and aftertaste. Through sweetener synergy, manufacturers may be able to develop reduced sugar and reduced calorie confections while maintaining quality and lowering costs. Describes the properties of the following nutritive sweeteners: sucrose, corn syrups, high-fructose corn syrup, crystalline fructose, and dextrose. Also includes key properties of the following high-potency sweeteners: sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, neotame, cyclamate, saccharin, stevioside and rebaudioside A, and luo han guo. Includes the following charts: Sweetness Potency of Nutritive and High-Potency Sweeteners; Sweetness Profile Comparison of Nutritive Sweeteners; Sweetness Profile Comparison of High-intensity Sweeteners; Synergistic Sweetener Comparisons; Sweetener Synergy between Fructose and Sucrose; Representation of No Synergy and Synergy with Isoboles; Pectin Jelly Formulas; Determination of Equisweet Amount of Fructose to Match Sucrose Control; Sucrose/Fructose Isoboles for Synergy Determination; Pectin Jelly Formulas with Test Blends for Synergy Determination; Pectin Jelly Formulas with Different Sweetener Blends; Chocolate Compound-coating Formulas; Sweetener Combinations in Pectin Jelly Formulas; Reduction in Sugars and Calories in Pectin Jellies; Sweetener Combinations in Chocolate Compound-coating Formulas; Reduction in Sugars and Calories in Chocolate Compound Coating.


Anthony, Mark. “Building healthier desserts.” (August 2010) Wellness Foods insert in Food Processing. (71) 8: WF3-WF8 (Insert begins on p. 36).

Food processors are branching out to create desserts with a healthier profile, utilizing whole grains, fiber, no- or low-calorie sweeteners (inulin, stevia, Splenda), soy, fruit, vanilla and malt extracts. According to Innova Market Insights, 30% of new product launches in 2009 made some type of health claim, including: no preservatives, low calorie, low cholesterol, gluten-free and vitamin/mineral fortified." Includes interview with Aaron Clanton, baking curriculum manager at AIB International.

“EU-wide approval of stevia expected.” (May 2010) Manufacturing Confectioner. (90) 5:18.

Overview of a European Food Safety Agency report on the safety of the sweetener stevia, which gave the product a favorable review. This could lead to "an EU-wide approval of stevia within the next 6 to 9 months."


Fitzgerald, Christina. “Understanding sweet carbohydrates.” (April 2010) Food Product Design. (20) 4:24-26.

Overview of sweet carbohydrates, including fructose, sucrose, glucose and lactose. According to a USDA Economic Research report in 1998, "45% of added sweeteners consumed go into beverages, 18% into cereal and baked goods, and 11% into confectionery goods." Discusses metabolism of carbohydrates and obesity rates.


Gelski, Jeff. (July 27, 2010). “Stevia Needs a Partner in Baking Milling & Baking News. (89) 11: 25-26, 28, 30.

According to data obtained from The Nielson Company, sales of natural products for the 52 weeks ending June 12, 2010, were $20,310,202,058.  The Nielson Company also reported that U.S. sales of food and beverage products containing the sweetener Stevia were $281,441,495 for the same time period, an increase from $85,552,067, for the same period of time a year earlier. The number of grain-based foods that have been introduced have increased. In re-formulating grain-based products to include stevia-based sweeteners, food manufacturers need to add a bulking agent  to their formula. New products containing Stevia that have been introduced include three varieties of cookies from Penny's Low Fat Desserts.  Comments on the introduction of grain-based products containing Stevia are included from Penny Pearl, founder of Penny's Low Fat Desserts; Magomet Malsagov, chief executive officer and managing director of PureCircle, and Jim May, president and chief executive officer of Wisdom Natural Foods.  Includes a table listing Stevia brands by company. A side bar entitled,"Cost-Effective Stevia Options Increase" profiles the Stevia products BlendSure from GLG Life Tech Corp and SG95 from PureCircle USA. 



“HFCS and weight gain.” (May 2010) Prepared Foods. (179) 5:41.

A study by Princeton University has found that rats eating HFCS gained more weight than those eating table sugar of equal caloric value.


Jones, J. M. “Added sugars, nutrient intakes, and grain-based foods.” (September/October 2010) Cereal Foods World. (55) 5:226-230.                

As added sugars in processed foods gain criticism by health experts, formulators of cereal products struggle to replace these sugars due to their functional roles. Grains and cereals comprise nearly 20% of U.S. consumption of added sugars. Another health concern about the average U.S. diet is the low intake levels of various nutrients, including: Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, choline and dietary fiber. "For the 13% of the population with high or very high added sugars intakes, nutrient intakes are even lower and are associated with even lower levels of nutrient adequacy than the population as a whole." This article suggests that grain-based foods are uniquely situated to address nutrient deficiencies once the added sugars are reduced.


Kuntz, Lynn. “Stevia’s sweet story.” (June 2010) Food Product Design. (20) 6:16-20.

Overview of the development of the all-natural sweetener stevia, which received GRAS status by the FDA and the European Food Safety Authority. Discusses the sweetness level, health benefits, bulking agents, flavor and applications.


“New standard for popular stevia-based sweetener.” (December 2009/January 2010) Food Safety Magazine. (15) 6:8.

The U.S. Pharmacopeial (USP) Convention will include a new standard for the plant-based sweetener Stevia (Rebaudioside A) in the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC).


Toops, Diane. “Holy grail of sweeteners?” (February 2010) Food Processing. (71) 2:18-21.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, more than two-thirds of American adults, one third of children and 10% of babies are obese or overweight. Sugars and high fructose corn syrup are being criticized for contributing to the obesity epidemic. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans will set a limit on added sugar for the first time. According to a 2004 government survey, the average American consumes 22 teaspoons of added sugar, 355 calories daily. Demand for alternative sweeteners have increased 4% each year in the past decade. This article provides an overview of the all natural sweetener reb-A from the stevia plant, which was granted GRAS status in December 2008. The stevia based Truvia from Coca-Cola and Cargill has gained 6.1% of the overall sugar substitute marked, with sales reaching $25.5 million. Stevia's arrival came at a time of exploding popularity for all-natural claims, with the all natural market in 2008 hitting $22 billion, a 10% increase from the previous year. While stevia had a strong first year, application to non-beverage products has been slow.


Toops, Diane. “Much ado about HFCS.” (April 2010) Food Processing. (71) 4:66.

Overview on the debate on high fructose corn syrup and obesity link. According to the American Medical Association, "the composition of sugar and HFCS are so similar there is no reason to suggest that high fructose corn syrup is more correlated with obesity than sugar." This has been supported by the following individuals: Michael Jacobson, Center for Science in the Public Interest; Walter Willett, Harvard School of Health; Marion Nestle, New York University.


Toops, D. “Truvia sweetens Breyers YoCrunch.” (March 2010) Food Processing. (71) 3:23.

Profile of Cargill and Breyers Yogurt Co.'s new line of YoCrunch 100 Calorie Packs, which is made with the all-natural sweetener Truvia rebiana (stevia).


Strouts, Brian. “Comparison of sweeteners in bakery products.” (January/February 2010) AIB Research Department Technical Bulletin. (32) 1:1-9.

Overview of a study conducted at AIB International which analyzed the effect of sweetener selection (sucrose vs. HFCS) on the following baked goods: white pan bread, hamburger buns, yellow cakes, and chocolate chip cookies. "Differences in key attributes like water absorption, mixing time, proofing time, product volume, external and internal appearance, and eating quality were documented throughout the process." Discusses the basic attributes of sucrose, regular corn syrup, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).


White, John. “Let’s clarify added-sugar myths.” (March 2010) Food Processing. (71) 3:15.

This article is written in response to the growing criticism of added-sugars, specifically the Food Processing article "Holy Grail of Sweeteners?" in the February 2010 issue. This article discusses common myths about added-sugars. "Calories from HFCS and added sugars are just one-tenth of the total calorie increase since 1975, so clearly are not the primary cause of obesity." The American Medical Association has found that the composition, calories and metabolism of added sugars are similar, including sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, honey and fruit juice concentrates.


2009 Journal Citations:


Berry, Donna. “Naturally sweet.” (November 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 11:64-70.

According to a survey conducted by the Shelton Group, more consumers preferred the product claim of natural (31%) to organic (25%), because they mistakenly believed that it was more regulated. While there is not an official definition of natural- it is most often described as containing no artificial additives, preservatives, colors or synthetic substances. Discusses the following sweeteners: stevia, isomaltulose, erythritol, malted-barley extracts and syrups, brown rice syrups, tapioca syrups, agave, maple syrup, and honey.


“Blue California Reb-A is GRAS.” (August 2009) Food Processing. (70) 8:20.

Announcement that Blue California's Good&Sweet rebaudioside-A (97%) has been granted GRAS status by the FDA. So far, only three companies have achieved GRAS status for purified stevia plan extract: Blue California, Cargill and Merisant.


Buskin, David. “Formulating strategies.” (September/October 2009) Cereal Foods World. (54) 5: 230-231.

Discusses substitutes for high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which has gained a negative public image. Includes: dextrose and fructose; invert syrup and medium invert syrup; brown rice syrup; inulin syrups; polydextrose syrup; and fructose syrup.

Deis, Ronald. “Seamlessly sugar-free sweets.” (June 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 6:50-58.

Article discusses how to formulate sugar-free confections, with tips on matching the functionality of sugar. Discusses polyols, low-digestible carbohydrates, and high-potency sweeteners. Discusses FDA regulations on sugar claims. Discusses rebaudioside A (stevia), polydextrose, inulin, resistant maltodextrin, saccharine, sucralose, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame.


Fedar, David. “How to build a healthy breakfast.” (August 2009) Wellness Foods Insert in Food Processing. (70) 8: WF2-WF8 (Insert begins on p. 36).

The two driving trends of the breakfast category are: increased functional properties and less processing/less ingredients/more organic. Includes interview with Kent Spalding, director of marketing of Weetabix North America/Barbara's Bakery, who believes these trends can be incorporated together in new product development with natural nutraceuticals. "National Starch states that sales of cereals with nutritional benefit claims, such as added fiber, heart health, satiety, formulated for men/women, increased by more than 13 percent in 2007- double the growth of the cereal category as a whole." Discusses 'better-for-you grains, such as kamut, quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat, teff and sorghum. Most of these grains have the added benefit of being gluten-free, a category which since 2004 has achieved an annual growth rate of 28%. Gluten-free sales in 2008 reached $1.56 billion. Discusses the natural zero-calorie sweetener Stevia and its potential to cut the sugar content in cereals from 25-40%. Packaging efficiencies such as biodegradable, non-GMO bioplastics and smaller packaging are expected to gain popularity.


Gelski, Jeff. “Sweeteners on offense.” (May 5, 2009) Milling & Baking News. (88) 5:19-22.

Discusses the launch of several Stevia-based sweeteners into the U.S. market, and the Corn Refiners Association's (CRA) efforts to improve the perception of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Reviews both of these sweeteners benefits in grain-based food production. After the FDA allowed stevia-based sweeteners into the U.S. food supply, the majority of the products utilizing this natural, zero-calorie sweetener were beverages. Yet baked foods could benefit as well, and the article discusses potential formulation challenges. HFCS, an industry staple was encountered an increasingly negative public perception, based in part due to a confusion of scientific research. Breads which claimed to be HFCS-free gained an 177% sales increase, from 2007-2008. "Per capita consumption of HFCS in the United Sates has decreased from 62.7 lbs in 2000 to 56.3 lbs in 2007." The CRA has began a campaign to improve the image of HFCS, and inform the public about the comparative health profile as compared to other sweetener options. Provides suggestions for sweetener options for grain-based food applications, including: briessweet syrups and solids, raisin juice, xtend sucromalt, and litesse poludextrose. Includes a graph of "U.S. per-capita sweetener consumption" which shows refined sugar and HFCS from 2000-2007.


McKay, Betsy. “FDA clears use of herb to sweeten drinks in the U.S.” (December 18, 2008) Wall Street Journal. (252) 144: B1.

The FDA has approved the sweetener derived from the stevia plant as safe for use. Coca-Cola Corp. plans to use this sweetener in Sprite Green and in Odwalla juice drinks. PepsiCo is also planning to utilize this zero-calorie, natural sweetener in several products, including Sobe Lifewater.


McQuate, Robert. “Where are stevia-derived sweeteners headed?” (April 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 4:18-20.

As the global use of stevia-based sweeteners increases, this article attempts to clear up certain questions regarding its safety. The following questions are discussed: Are stevia and all stevia-derived sweeteners now GRAS? With the increased incorporation of stevia-derived sweeteners in foods, will the increased consumption result in food uses that exceed GRAS levels? What other developments with steviol glycosides are emerging? and What safety or regulatory concerns remain with reb A and the steviol glycosides?


Nachay, Karen. “Stevia acceptance moves forward.” (February 2009) Food Technology. (63)2:12.

Sweeteners with rebaudioside A, an extract from the stevia plant has been granted GRAS status by the FDA. Products that will utilize stevia include "PepsiCo's Zero-Calorie SoBe Lifewater and Tropicana Trop 50 and Cargill's Truvia table-top sweetener."


Nachay, Karen. “Off notes blocked.” (April 2009) Food Technology. (63) 4:12-13.

Though the all-natural sweetener Stevia has received FDA approval, some manufacturers are hesitant to work with the product because it has flavor off-notes. However, Swiss ingredient supplier Givaudan has developed flavor ingredients to block the bitter taste receptors that reb-A triggers.


Nachay, Karen. “Stevia sales soar, acceptance low.” (November 2009) Food Technology. (63) 11:12.

According to Mintel, sales of the all natural sweetener stevia reached $95 million by mid-June 2009, with 2008 sales only reaching $21 million. Despite this substantial increase, a Mintel study reveals that consumer awareness and confidence remains low. The survey found that: 62% have no interest in trying stevia, 11% believe it is unsafe, 25% might be interested but have not tried it, and 11% have tried it and will continue to purchase it.


Peckenpaugh, Douglas. “Stevia expands functional-food options.” (August 2009) Functional Foods Annual Supplement for Food Product Design. (19) 8:30-31.

Stevia, a zero-calorie natural sweetener has huge potential in the functional foods category. Discusses the differences between the available stevia products, specifically the chemicals used in the extraction process. Includes details for baking applications, discussing sweetness level and lack of Milliard browning.


Petrak, Lynn. “A sweet deal.” (November 2009) PLBuyer. (23) 11:74-77.

This article discusses the variety of sweeteners available to baker and snack manufacturers, as the category's main drivers include convenience, cost-efficiency, a health/wellness. According to Paul Bright, Fleischmann's Yeast, "consumers have expressed preferences for natural and organic baked goods over the past couple of years." Discusses low-/no-calorie sweeteners and the growing importance of natural products. Includes an overview of the debate surrounding High Fructose Corn Syrup.


“Stevia market to break $100 million this year.” (November 2009) Nutraceuticals World. (12) 9:14-15.

This article provides a performance review of the new sweetener Stevia, after it received GRAS status from the FDA in December 2008. Stevia sales reaches $95 million by July 2009, with sales expected to increase to 2 billion by the end of 2011. Includes statistics on consumers' awareness/attitudes about stevia.


Swann, Lauren. “Sweet cravings.” (August 2009) Prepared Foods. (178) 8:42-48.

In 2007, sweets achieved $9.7 billion in sales in the U.S. market. According to the USDA, the "available calories from all forms of added sugars increased 17% from 1970-2006," major factors implicated in the rates of overweight people and diabetics. Discusses the various sweetener options, such as: fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), stevia, erythiritol, sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame-K, agave, brazzein, and thaumatin. Includes chart entitled "Sweet Taste Profile: Maximal Response."


“Sweet on stevia.” (February 2009) Food Technology. (63) 2:16.

The FDA has granted GRAS status to the naturally derived sweetener rebaudioside A (rebiana). The following companies plan product launches: PepsiCo.'s SoBe Lifewater drink; Odwalls' Mojito Mambo and Pomegranate Strawberry Juice; and Coca-Cola's Sprite Green.


“Sweetness, naturally.” (February 2009) Prepared Foods. (178) 2:10.

Profile of PureVia, the stevia-based sweetener created by Whole Earch. This all-natural, zero-calorie sweetener has recently been granted GRAS status in the U.S. by the FDA. "This sweetener is suitable for those with diabetes and is not genetically modified in its manufacturing process."


“The stevia rush is on.” (January 2009). Food Processing. (70) 1:12.

Rebaudioside A (reb-A), a purified derivative of the stevia plant has been granted GRAS status by the FDA. Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi have created beverages which feature the natural sweetener. Coca-Cola has created Sprite Green, which is marketed towards young adults. PepsiCo has partnered with Whole Earth Sweetener to create stevia-based PureVia. Cargill has released Truvia, a tabletop sweetener brand made from stevia. Other companies developing stevia products include: Blue California, CA; PureCircle, Malaysia; Pyure Brands LLC, FL; Wisdom Natural Brands, AZ; and GLG Life Tech, Vancouver.


“USP releases standards for stevia-based sweeteners.” (June/July 2009) Food Quality. (16) 3:13-14.

Overview of the U.S. Pharmacopeial (ISP) Convention's standard entitled "Food Chemicals Codex (FCC)" which includes the written testing standard for high purity rebaudioside A (stevia).


2008 Journal Citations:


Berry, Donna. “Low-cal sweet tooth satisfaction.” (September 2008) Food Product Design. (18) 9:24-33.

With mounting concern at the global increase of obesity rates, food processors are looking for low-calorie sweeteners that taste and function similar to sugar. This article reviews the following sweetener options: acesulfame K, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, saccharin, fructose, sugar alternatives which provides bulk, stevia, and ingredients which enhance sweetness. According to a Mintel report Sugar and Sweeteners-U.S., "sales of white sugar fell by 16% from 2002 to 2006, sugar substitute sales increased 22% during the same period."


Haji, Ferid. “Sweetener blends with erythritol.” (April 2008) Food Product Design. (18) 4:30-34.

Erythritol is a polyol, which tastes similar to sugar, and has a low caloric content ratio of 0.2 kcal per gram. Erythritol qualifies as an all-natural and an organic ingredient. "Using erythritol in combination with other sweeteners opens a wide range of advantages and features: natural sweetening, improved taste, low-glycemic-index sweetness, etc." Includes chart entitled "Digestive Tolerance of Polyols" and analyzes erythitol, polydextrose, maltitol, isomalt, xylitol, lacitol, and sorbitol. Another chart included is "Groups of sweeteners available for blends with erythritol (sweetness vs. sugar)" and lists natural sweeteners, high intensity sweeteners, polyols, and plant extracts.


Jamieson, Peter. “The sugarfree toolbox- bulk ingredients and intense sweeteners.” (November 2008) Manufacturing Confectioner. (88) 11:33-46.

Discusses sugar free confections, emphasizing functional requirements of low-digestible carbohydrates and high-potency sweeteners. Topics include a basic overview of sugars, labeling claims, functional properties, solubility, molecular weight, polyols, low-digestible sugars (fructose, tagatose, ismaltulose), low-digestible carbohydrates-fiber (polydextrose, inulin, resistant maltodextrin, hydrocolloids), and high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, and rebaudioside-A).


Lewis, C. “Sugar Substitutes.” (January 2008) Baking Buyer. (20) 1:48-51.

Splenda No Calorie Sweetener, or sucralose is made by, "a patented, multi-step process that selectively replaces three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the sugar molecule with three chlorine atoms." This article outlines how to bake with Splenda, including a chart that gives Splenda granulated weight conversions. Using honey as a sugar substitute is also included, and provides tips from the National Honey Board (www.


Mogelonsky, M. “Sugar-free Foods and Beverages.” (January 2008) Prepared Foods, (177) 1:13-22.

Sugar-free sales climbed to $8.8 billion in 2006, which reflects the nations growing concern with diabetes and weight-loss. In the past, sugar-free sales usually spike after a new ingredient innovation is introduced. However, the recent rise is not obviously linked to a new innovation, rather the category is gaining strength as a whole. Though not currently approved as a food ingredient in the U.S. or the E.U., Stevia is showing great potential as a natural sweetener. Sugar-free gum shows impressive sales, as it is commonly used as an appetite suppressant and is beginning to include various vitamins and minerals. While the sugar-free carbonated beverage remains popular, individual brand success is rather unpredictable. The current trend is for a new product to be immensely popular for a year or two, and then disappear. Article includes the following statistics: Sale of sugar-free foods and beverages (2004 & 2006); Biggest players in the sugar-free industry (2004 & 2006); U.S. new product launches of no-/low-/reduced-sugar gum, chocolate confectionery, non-chocolate confectionery and carbonated beverages (2001-2006).


“Natural sweetener from stevia.” (August 2008) Food Technology. (62) 8:16.

The long awaited stevia sweetener has been released by Cargill, named Truvia. Nearly 200 times sweeter than sugar, this naturally calorie-free product is available as a tabletop sweetener.


Pszczola, Donald. “Sweeteners for the 21st century.” (November 2008) Food Technology. (62)11:49-57.

Discusses emerging and future possibilities in the sweetener category, with in-depth coverage of the recently GRAS-approved Stevia, an natural zero-calorie sweetener. Topics include: screening sweeteners and blends, Brazzein, energy extension, Erythritol, Isomalt, maple syrup, and honey.


“Stevia on two fronts: Truvia in NYC markets, PureVia in Peru.” (September 2008) Food Processing. (69) 9:16.

PepsiCo. has launched a stevia based sweetener called PureVia in Peru. In New York, Coca-Cola and Cargill Inc. have released the stevia table-top sweetener Truvia. Both soda companies must wait for the sweetener to gain FDA approval before the sugar substitute can be used in beverages.



2007 Journal Citations:


Nabors, L. “Regulatory Status of Alternative Sweeteners.” (May 2007) Food Technology. (61) 5:24-32.

It is important to monitor how sweeteners are regulated on both national and international levels. "Alternative sweeteners are among the most thoroughly studied and scrupulously regulated ingredients in our food supply." Article examines the regulatory terms such as Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), General Purpose Approval, and Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). "Five low-calorie sweeteners and eight polyols [are] approved for us in the United State, [and] additional sweeteners are approved in other parts of the world." Article examines the roles of institutions such as FECFA, and the Codex Alimentarious Commission.


2005 Journal Citations:


Gorton, L. “Alternatively Sweet.” (December 2005) Baking & Snack. (27) 11:77-81.

Sugar does much more in baked foods than add sweetness; it works as a bulking agent, impacts water activity, texture characteristics, browning and the gelatinization of flour.  Recreating all of these functions in a sugar substitute can be difficult and in many instances multiple sweeteners are used in conjunction with bulking agents.


Last updated July 7, 2011


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