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Sodium Levels

A Reference Resource List

Compiled by Emerson Library Staff




2011 Journal Citations:


Finally, the 2010 (2011?) dietary guidelines. (2011, March). Food Processing, 72 (3), 22-27.

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines were released on January 31, 2011. This article highlights the alterations in the final recommendations, which changed little from the 2005 Guidelines. This new set of Guidelines acknowledged obesity as the primary health issue in the U.S. Other areas of concern include sodium intake, solid fats and added sugar intake, consumption of refined grains, oversized portions, and insufficient fruits and vegetables. Includes a chart of new product launches with low-/no-/reduced- sodium claims (2007-2010). Another chart from the Institute of Food Technologists identify "what consumers need more of" (whole grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, oils) and "what consumers need less of" (solid fats, added sugars, refined grains, sodium and saturated fats).


Heidolphe, B.B.; Ray, D.K.; Roller, S.; Koehler, P.; Weber, J.; Slocum, S.; Noort, M.W.J. (2011, January/February). Looking for my lost shaker of salt… replacer: Flavor, function and future.” Cereal Foods World, 56( 1), 5-19.

This article is an overview of the AACC International Annual Meeting's Hot Topic Session on salt replacers, including emerging research and legislation. While consumers are aware that excessive salt is unhealthy, the public remains confused about healthy intake levels and which foods are high-sodium. Over 70% do not know the daily recommended intake. This article provides a review of the research which links dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease. While these studies have reached different conclusions, it is commonly held that the health benefits of a reduced-sodium diet include "fewer strokes, cardiovascular disease events, and deaths, as well as substantially reduced health care costs." As health organizations become increasingly concerned about sodium intake, many governments are looking to enact public health policies and regulations which minimize these risks. This article looks at the direction these policies are taking in various counties. Other topics include: sodium functionality in bakery applications, sodium chloride reduction, and improved sensory profile of sodium-reduced foods. The following charts are included: Percent of U.S. primary grocery shoppers saying they wish to eliminate or reduce sodium in their diets; Sodium in tomato products; Survey response to the question "Which of the following information do you use on the Nutritional Fact Panel;" Sodium physiology, blood pressure; Estimated mean daily sodium and potassium intakes by age/sex group, 2005-2006; Sources of sodium in the diet; Percentage of persons 2 years of age or more exceeding the tolerable upper intake level for sodium from foods; Number of new food products bearing nutrient claims, 1988-1997; Flavor profile of wheat breads containing 0, 0.7, 1.5, and 2.0% salt; Threshold values for sodium chloride in bread crumbs, in water extracts of bread crumb and in water; Binding of sodium to wheat proteins as determined by a magnetic beads assay (MB) and by ion selective electrodes (ISE); Common sodium-containing compounds and their function in food; and Sensory contrast- saltiness enhancement increases with contrast.


Philips, D. (2011, June 21).  Researchers target sodium reduction in cheese.  Food Business News, 7 (9), 43, 48.

Reducing sodium levels in cheese is challenging due to the many types and uses of cheese.   This challenge has led to an increase in recent research in the area of sodium reduction in cheese.  Research at the Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research focuses on reducing the sodium level of cheese by as much as 25% .  The increased emphasis of this topic has led the formation of a  best practices task force in was formed in December 2010.  The task force , composed of representatives from 17 cheese companies , was formed to focus on key factors that need to be considered when reducing sodium content in cheese.  The task force identified three challenges: taste and functionality, updating process controls and how to educate customers.   Includes comments from Mark Johnson, W.C.D.R senior scientist; Gregory Miller, president of the Dairy Research Institute of the National Dairy Council, and Erin Price, core marketing director at Sargeto


Roberts, W. (2011, April). Cut the salt. Prepared Food, 180 (4), 13.

As high sodium intake increased the risk of stroke, heart attacks and kidney disease, the American Heart Association has issued a call to action to reduce the levels of sodium in the American diet. The majority of Americans consume more than double the daily recommended levels, putting the national health at risk. Includes a chart entitles "So-so-sodium: One-day intake from all dietary sources in mg/day" broken down by age group and food type (table salt, tap water, supplements).


2010 Journal Citationas:


Cauvin, Stanley. “A little common sense goes a long way.” (March/April 2010) Cereal Foods World. (55) 2:111-112.

The author believes there is an information disconnect between the scientific community and the public. The nontechnical media often steps in as interpreter and ends up skewing the message. The author states that the drive to reduce sodium and saturated fat in foods is a result of this hyped up interpretation of scientific data. The author states "we need to get some common sense into the current diet and health debates."


“Cheese reduces sodium, not flavor.” (April 2010) Food Technology. (64) 4:16.

Profile of Sargento Foods' new line of Reduced Sodium cheese, which drops sodium by 25%. Core Marketing Director, Chris Groom states that, “We only wanted to launch the line if we could still provide the great-tasting natural cheese that consumers lobe, which this line does successfully.”

Hazen, Cindy. “Reducing sodium.” (July 2010) Food Product Design. (20) 7:84-98.

According to Packaged Facts, low- or no-sodium/salt products reached $22 billion in the U.S. in 2009. A HealthFocus International study discovered the following percentage of consumers: express concern about sodium intake (65%); do not know the recommended intake levels (79%); check sodium content (29%); reduce salt at the table (55%); believe sea salt is healthier alternative (78%). This article discusses proposed salt-reduction regulations, salt's functional role in food and sodium-reduction solutions. Discusses the following ingredients: yeast extracts, flavor enhancers, MSG, HVP, dried plum ingredients, unami enhancers, and potassium chloride stimulates.


Katz, Barbara & Williams, Lu Ann. “Salt reduction gains momentum.” (May 2010) Food Technology. (64) 5:24-32.

Overview of the public campaign to reduce sodium in processed foods, including the National Salt Reduction Initiative, whose mission is to cut the salt in packaged and restaurant food by 25% in 5 years. 80% of the salt in American's diets come from processed foods. According to the American Heart Association, the death rate from high blood pressure has increased 19% between 1996-2006. Nearly one-third of Americans have high blood pressure, with 76% of them unaware their condition. Includes a summary of voluntary industry initiatives to reduce sodium, including: Kraft Foods, Unilever, and Kellogg. In the global market, the U.S. accounted for one-third of low-sodium product launches. The annual low sodium market is worth $12 billion. Includes a summary of the HealhFocus International's (HFI) survey on consumer attitudes on salt in food, revealing that 65% are somewhat concerned about sodium content. Yet 79% of survey participants were unaware of the recommended daily intake of sodium. 55% of consumers believe that sodium products taste better than earlier low-sodium products. According to Innova Market Insights, 3,000 low-sodium products were launched globally (double the 2006 level). Discusses the baking industry in the Netherlands, whose major bakeries made a commitment to reduce sodium. Includes the following charts: Number of product launches claiming low sodium by top 10 countries; U.S. shopper knowledge of recommended daily allowance of sodium.


Kuhn, Mary Ellen. “Strategies for reducing sodium in the U.S.” (May 2010) Food Technology. (64) 5:34-36.

Overview of a report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) entitled "Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States." As high sodium levels are linked to hypertension, heart disease, and stroke, the IOM recommends that the F.D.A. modify salt's GRAS status and set limits of use as a food additive. Yet, salt affects flavor, shelf life, food safety and has technical uses. Food companies voluntarily reducing sodium levels include Campbell Soup Co., Kraft Foods and Bumble Bee Foods. Includes the following charts: Trends in mean daily sodium intake from food for three gender/age groups, 1971-1974 to 2003-2006; Tracking salt concerns vs reduced sodium product consumption.


McMullen, Evagenline. “Boosting benefits.” (April 2010)  Baking Management (14) 4:8, 10.

Health conscious consumers are looking for nutritious bread products that are made with whole grains, are lower in calorie, lower in sodium, high in fiber and are portion controlled.    Perspectives on the category are provided from Janice Anderson, vice president of marketing, Flowers Foods; Tim Zimmer, vice president of Sara Lee Fresh Bakery, and Dough Radi, vice president of marketing at Rudi's Organic Bakery.   Includes a table with dollar and unit sales of the top 10 brands of fresh bread for the 52 weeks ending February 21, 2010, and a graph showing the market share of the top 10 brands.  Private label  brands hold the largest market share with 26.5 percent of sales in the category.


Malovany, Dan. “Back to the drawing board.” June 2010).  Snack Food & Wholesale Bakery (99) 6: 38-40, 42, 44-46.

 During the last year the economy as affected the cookie and cracker segments of the bakery market.  Cookie manufacturers reduced the number of new products introduced in the category to 462 in 2009 a decline of 38% percent from the previous year.  New product introductions in the cracker category also fell   but only slightly to 223 in 2009 from 239 in 2008.  Article includes tables with dollar sales (in millions), % change vs. pervious year, dollar share, unit sales (in millions), and unit sales for the top ten brands of cookies and top ten brands of crackers.   Key trends in the cookie and cracker categories are healthier products that are low in sodium, lower in sugar and have been reformulated with healthier fat or oils along with items being more convenient   Data for the tables were obtained from SymphonyIRI Group for the 52 weeks ending March 21, 2010.   Perspectives on current trends in the category are provided from Cara Figgins, vice president and co-owner of PARTNERS, a tasteful choice company; Wally Amos, chief executive officers of Chip & Cookie LLC; Harry Duffin, vice president of dales for Gourmet Cookies; Laura Kuykendall, senior marketing manager for Glutino Food Group; Joy Page, chief executive officer of WOW Baking Co.; Jill Brack, owner of Glow Gluten Free, and Jerry Bigam, president of Kinnikinnick Foods Inc.


Mannie, Elizabeth. “Savory sensations.” (April 2010) Prepared Foods. (179) 4:23-32.

New ideas for savory flavors, including fruits and vegetables, peppers, onions, garlic, tomatoes, miso and unami. Discusses labeling, reducing sodium, applications and ingredient ideas. Includes a chart of flavors appearing in new foods launched in North America (2007-2009) from Mintel. Includes an overview of responses to an e-survey by Prepared Foods' Savory Survey.  According to this survey, 52% of respondents responded that savory flavors could replace salt "to a great extent."


“Mister salty.” (February 2010) Prepared Foods. (179) 2:32.

Sodium levels in food are gaining more public criticism, as many Americans far exceed the recommended daily intake of sodium. The National Salt Reduction Initiative, made up of state and health organizations, is seeking to reduce the average American salt intake by 20% by 2015. The group seeks to cut sodium levels in peanut butter by 20%, canned vegetables 40%, breakfast cereals 40%, breads 25%, cold cuts 25%, and salad dressing 30%.


Nachay, Karen. “PepsiCo to reduce sugar, sodium.” (May 2010) Food Technology. (64) 5:13.

Announcement that PepsiCo Inc. has began a new business initiative called "Performance with Purpose'" which seeks to reduce added sugar, sodium, and saturated fat in all of its food and beverage products. This initiative plans to accomplish the following: increase use of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and low-fat dairy; reduce sodium by 25% by 2015; reduce added sugar by 15% by 2020; end direct selling of full-sugar soft drinks to schools by 2012; reduce packaging weight by 2012; increase employee health and safety.


“N.Y.C. initiative targets sodium reduction.”  (January 29, 2010). Food Business News (5) 24: 1, 16-17.

The National Salt Reduction Initiative has been introduced by Health Department officials in New York City.  The initiative proposes to reduce the amount of salt  in packaged and restaurant foods by as much as 25 percent over a period of five years. Provides  a table with the sales-weighted mean along with proposed targets for 2012 and 2014 form various packaged foods including bread and rolls, tortilla and wraps, cookies, crackers, French toast, pancakes, and waffles, cold cuts, pepperoni and dry salami, cooked sausage, hot dogs, bacon, undercooked whole muscle meet and poultry, processed cheese, margarine and other spreads, salted butter, salad dressing, flavored chips, puffed corn snacks, popcorn, pretzels and snack mixes, canned soup, dry soup, frozen, refrigerated pizza, canned chili, pasta and has, and seasoned pasta, grain mixes.  Reaction to the purposed initiative is included from Thomas Farley, New York City Health Commissioner; Chor-San Khoo, vice-president of global nutrition and health for the Campbell Soup Co. ; Morton Satin, director of technical and regulatory affairs for the Salt Institute and Sue Hensley, senior vice-president of public affairs at the National Restaurant Association.


“PepsiCo reduces sodium by restricting salt.” (April 2010) Food Processing. (71) 4:14.

PepsiCo Inc. has restructured the crystals in salt to allow for more salt to dissolve on the tongue. This allows less salt in products with no compromise to taste. PepsiCo has pledged to lower sodium by 25% by the year 2015.


Rittman, Allison. “Pass (up) the salt.” (May 2010) Prepared Foods. (179) 5:67-73.

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute reports that a 50% reduction in sodium is estimated to be able to prevent 150,000 deaths from cardiovascular disease annually. Discusses recommendations from the FDA, the American Heart Association, and the National Salt Initiative. As a growing number of consumers demand reduced sodium foods, manufacturers are developing innovative flavor enhancers to improve the taste of low-sodium products. "By heightening a unami flavor profile with ingredients, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), inosine monophosphate (IMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), the apparent saltiness of a food is increased, without increasing sodium levels." Discusses clean-label salt replacement ingredients, with high unami flavor, including: tomatoes, Parmesan cheese, mushrooms, meat products, broths and soybeans. Discusses formulation challenges for low-sodium products.


Roberts, William. “Meal planning.” (March 2010) Prepared Foods. (179) 3:41-48.

New launches in new meal/meal centers dropped 25% in 2009. This article discusses the following meal trends- ethnic food, beverage crossover, low sodium and all-natural products. Mintel forecasts that ethnic food sales will grow 20% from 2010-2014. As more than 70% of Americans exceed the daily recommended allowance for sodium, nation-wide initiatives have developed to cut sodium content in processed foods. The National Salt Reduction Initiative seeks to lower the average Americans salt intake by 20% in the next five years. Includes the following charts: So It Says- Top 15 claims in the U.S. across the meal/meal center category; Making Meals- Meal introductions (2005-2009).


Roberts, William. “Salty banter.” (June 2010) Prepared Foods. (179) 6:9.

This brief editorial discusses various salt- and sodium-reduction efforts, including the National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI). Other issues include consumer acceptance of low-sodium products and marketing strategies.


Rosanoff, Andrea & Clemens, Roger. “Managing magnesium in a sodium-dominant era.” (June 2010) Food Technology. (64) 6:21.

The American diet is seriously lacking in magnesium and potassium, while sodium content has skyrocketed. These mineral imbalances can lead to cardiovascular problems. "Balancing the sodium with more potassium and magnesium may be the prudent approach to maintain long-term, healthy sodium-potassium-magnesium relationships." Dietary sources of potassium include: reduced-fat milk, coffee, orange juice, chicken, and beef. Sources of magnesium include fruits, vegetables and whole grains. According to the USDA, "virtually none of the American population consumes an adequate level of whole grains." Refined flours are 70% lower in potassium and 80% lower in magnesium than whole wheat counterparts.


Sara Lee reformulates  some breads with no HFCS, lower sodium.”  (August 10, 2010). Milling & Baking News.

Sara Lee Corp. has reformulated its Soft & Smooth Whole Grain White Bread and Soft & Smooth 100% Whole Wheat varieties of bread.  The newly reformulated products do not contain high-fructose corn syrup and have a reduction in the sodium content.


Satin, Morton. “Salt regulation and international trade.” (June 2010) Food Technology. (64) 6:172.

This editorial by IFT member Morton Satin discusses the World Trade Organization's (WTO) sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Discusses the proposal to remove the GRAS status of salt and the potential results on international food trade under provisions of TBT and SPS agreements.


Schwan’s Ahead of School Pizza Sodium Reduction Goal.” (July 27, 2010) Milling & Baking News. (89) 11: 9.

 Schwan's Food Service Inc., plans to reduce the sodium content of its Big Daddy's brand of pizza by 15% to 25%.  The Big Daddy's brand is one-third of Schwan's school pizza business. According to the National School Lunch Program Schwan's Foods Services Inc., is the largest supplier to the program.


Sperber, Bob. “Get well soon.” (September 2010) Food Processing. (71) 9:48-55.

According to Information Resources Inc. (IRI), healthy snacks account for 37% of the snack food market, growing 8% from 2005-2009. With 74% of consumers trying to "eat healthier," top wellness trends include low-/no-fat, zero trans fat, whole grains, and reduced sugar/calories/sodium. IRI has tracked the growth of the following health claims: grain-related (25%), low fat (16%), low sodium (16%), and low calorie (3%). This article discusses the role that  twin-screw extruder technology are having on the healthy snack market, including the importance of contract manufacturers. Includes a side bar on twin-screw basics and one on reduced-sodium snacks.


Tarver, Toni. “Desalting the food grid.” (August 2010) Food Technology. (64) 8:44-50.

Excessive sodium intake is linked to elevated blood pressure, which increases the risk of heart disease, stroke and kidney disease. The majority of Americans consume significantly more sodium than is recommended, with 70% of all sodium intake coming from prepared foods and restaurant meals. While salt does play an important role in food processing and food safety,  many companies have committed to gradually reducing the amount of sodium they use, including Campbell Soup Co., General Mills, Bumble Bee Foods, and Kellogg Co. This article discusses the merits and challenges of utilizing sea salt, herbs and spices, potassium chloride and taste enhancers. Includes a chart of sources of sodium in processed foods.


Toops, Diane. “Challenges of lowering sodium.” (March 2010) Food Processing. (71) 3:50-54.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Americans consume 50% more than the daily recommended intake of sodium. Only 29% of Americans consistently check sodium levels in their food, and 79% do not know the daily recommended intake. However, the reduction of sodium can have adverse effects to food safety and product stability. Companies that have taken measures to reduce sodium in processed food include: ConAgra, Campbell Soup, General Mills, Kellogg, Kraft Foods, Nestle, PepsiCo and Unilever. Discusses ingredient innovations to aid in reducing sodium.


Toops, Diane. “Frito-Lay’s lightly salted portfolio expands.” (July 2010) Food Processing. (71) 7:17.

Profile of Frito-Lay's new Lightly Salted versions of the popular Fritos and Ruffles potato chips, which reduce sodium by 50%.


Toops, Diane. “Sargento lowers the sodium.” (May 2010) Food Processing. (71) 5:19.

Sargento Foods Inc. has introduced a line of six reduced sodium cheeses, which decreases sodium by 25%.


2009 Journal Citations:


Berry, Donna. “Sodium reform.” (October 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 10:60-72.

Due to the increased risks of hypertension and heart disease, experts believe that people should limit sodium consumption to 2,300 m.g. Includes salt statistics from Mintel's Global New Product Database, which reports an 115% increase of products containing low-, no- or reduced-sodium claims (2005-2008). Discusses the following topics: labeling, salt replacers, salt substitutes, flavor enhancement systems, and sodium acid sulfate. Also discusses selecting the best sodium reduction method for the following types of foods: chemically leavened sweets, biscuits, muffins, processed meats, and processed cheese. "Calcium acid pyrophosphate can directly reduce the sodium of such baked goods by as much as 25%, depending on what sodium-based leavening acid is replaced."


Caranfa, Maria. “Too much salt!” (May 2009) Prepared Foods. (178) 5:63.

The amount of sodium in processed foods is causing growing concern. The American Medical Association is asking the for the following measures, "50% reduction in the amount of sodium in processed and restaurant meals, and it is also asking the Food and Drug Administration to improve sodium labels." Denny's has taken steps to reduce the sodium content of several menu items, especially foods geared towards children. Other companies voluntarily reducing sodium include: Burger King, Yum! Brands and Au Bon Pain.        


Cogswell, T. “Regulatory concerns and issues on the rise in 2009.” (November/December 2009) Cereal Foods World. (54) 6:253-255.

This article discusses several controversial ingredients and their regulations, including: acrylamide, potassium bromate, azodicarbonamide, diacetyl, sodium and natural product claims.


Esquivel, Teresa. “Escalations in the salt debate.” (May 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 5:16.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a study which showed that the current recommended sodium levels are too high for the vast majority of American, which fit into a higher risk bracket. Middle-aged, the elderly, blacks and people with hypertension should only consume 1,500 mg daily, as opposed to the current 2,300 mg recommendation. Discusses how the food industry is being criticized for its role, as more than 75% of sodium intake comes from processed foods. An initiative to cut sodium levels in processed foods is growing among local health department, medical associations, and regulatory agencies.


French, Steve. “Sodium: A dash of reality.” (October 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 10:16.

The current recommended daily allowance for sodium is 2,300 mg, which the average American exceeds, consuming from 3,000 to 4,500 mg daily. However, 60% of Americans are concerned about the levels of sodium in their food. In fact, 46% of consumers say the feature they are most likely to check on a food label is sodium content. This article questions whether government regulations are imminent, if food manufacturers do not cut sodium levels in processed foods voluntarily.


Gelski, Jeff . “Keep flavor, enhance product image while reducing sodium.” (April 28, 2009) Food Business News. (5) 5: 36-39.

The two main strategies to deal with growing pressure to reduce sodium in processed foods include taste substitutes and sea salt replacements. Cost is a substantial issue as the new technology is more expensive. Some replacement options include potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Sea salt has a healthier image than synthetic chemical replacements as a means to reduce sodium content. According to Innova New Products Database, 800 new sea-salt products were launched in 2007, an annual increase of 16%.


Fitzgerald, Christina. “Shaking out sodium replacement facts.” (July 2009) Food Product Design. (19) 7:19-22.

The majority of Americans consume well above the recommended daily limit of 2,300 mg of sodium. "Recent estimations suggest that one out of three adults in the United States has high blood pressure." The leading cause of death globally is cardiovascular disease (CVD), which high blood pressure is a leading risk factor (49%). The following salt substitutes are examined: potassium chloride, potassium bicarbonate, magnesium salts, low-sodium salt, and the flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG).


Murphy, Joan & Healy, Amber. “Validity of new study on sodium consumption debated.” (September 21, 2009) Food Chemical News. (51) 29:26-27.

Criticism of the Rand Corporation's study published in the American Journal of Health Promotion by the Salt Institute, which argues the validity of the blood pressure shift assumptions in the study.


Nachay, Karen. “Dough structure okay with lower salt.” (October 2009) Food Technology. (October 2009) Food Technology. (63) 10:11.

A study at the University College Cork in Ireland has found acceptable bread characteristics when they reduced the amount of salt in dough. The full study "Fundamental Studies on the Reduction of Salt on Dough and Bread Characteristics" is published in Food Research International (August 2009).


Nachy, Karen. “Hold the salt.” (October 2009) Food Technology. (63) 10:10.

Mintel reports that half of Americans are monitoring their salt intake, with low-, no-, or reduced-sodium claims increasing 115% from 2005 to 2008. Includes statistics on methods consumers are using to reduce sodium in their diet.


Nachay, Karen. “Soy sauce aids sodium reduction.” (August 2009) Food Technology. (63) 8:14.

As more criticism builds about the amount of sodium in food, researchers at Wageningen University and Kikkoman Europe has studied the possibility of using soy sauce as a salt replacement in salad dressings, soup, and stir-fried pork. The study has been published in the Journal of Food Science.


“New reasons to be wary of hidden salt.” (May 2009) Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter. (27) 3:4-5.

A new report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 70% of Americans should reduce their daily sodium intake to 1,500 milligrams. The CDC describes the following groups as potentially sodium sensitive: people with hypertension, people over 40, and African-Americans (age 20-39). The American Heart Association warns that hypertension increases the risks of heart disease and stroke. Evaluations by the non-profit group Consumers Union found surprisingly high levels of sodium in foods not considered "salty." Even food advertised as healthy, such as reduced-fat, could have high sodium levels. Provides tips on reducing the "hidden" salt in one's diet.


“Reduce sodium in baked goods.” (April 28, 2009) Food Business News. (5) 5:39.

Overview of how ingredient suppliers are helping manufacturers reduce sodium in baked goods. Profiles include: Fleischmann's Yeast's AB Mauri Low Sodium and AB Mauri Sodium Free Baking Powder options; ICL Performance Products' Levona leavening agents; Innophos Cal-Rise. Beyond decreasing or eliminating sodium levels, the products also add substantial calcium to products.


“Reducing sodium, maintaining flavor.” (September 2009) Food Technology. (63) 9:14.

The popular Campbell's tomato soup now has 32% less sodium, while maintaining the taste America loves. Campbell's tomato soup is on the list of the top ten grocery items purchased. Though extensive research, Campbell's found that 90% of those surveyed would buy the reduced sodium version of the soup.


Sloan, A. Elizabeth.  “Percentage of consumers who consider an attribute very important when looking at the nutritional label of ingredients of the foods they purchase.  (January 201). Food Technology. (64) 1: 18-27.

Chart of specific health attributes and the change in consumers perceptions from 2008-2009. From Food Marketing Institute. Includes the following: trans fat (54-58), saturated fat (49-56), fat content (53-55), calories (46-49), salt/sodium (47-47), sugar/artificial sweeteners (42-47), whole grains (44-46), cholesterol (41-44), chemical additives (37-44), fiber (37-39), protein (31-39), carbohydrates (32-38), vitamins/minerals (34-38), preservatives (28-34), serving size (33-32), allergens (20-22), glycemic index (16-17), probiotic/prebiotic (16-14), gluten (13-14).


Toops, Diane. “Campbell lowers sodium in iconic tomato soup.” (November 2009) Food Processing (70) 11:17.

America's iconic soup, Campbell's Tomato Soup has reduced sodium levels by 32% by substituting sea salt. The company has conducted extensive market research, including taste tests from all 50 states. "Nine out of 10 people said they would buy Campbell's tomato soup as much or more often after tasting the new formulation." The soup contains 480 mg of sodium, the level designated as safe by the U.S. government.


Toops, Diane. “Demonizing salt.” (September 2009) Food Processing. (70) 9:22-27.

As most Americans consume roughly 50% more than the total daily recommended level of sodium, the food industry is increasingly pressured to reduce the levels of sodium in processed foods. The functions of salt in processed food include: "it serves as a preservative, inhibits the growth of bacteria, regulates fermentation, enhances color, texture, and mouthfeel and helps counter bitter tastes." Discusses the history of sodium reduction in the food industry. Profiles the following salt solutions: Cargill's SaltWise, Morton's Lite Salt, Wixon Inc's KCLean Salt, Danisco's Grinsted Salt Pro, Wild Flavor's SaltTrim, and Kikkoman's Less Sodium Soy Sauce. Discuses the following companies' reduced salt initiatives: Hirzel Canning Co. & Farms, First Campbell Soup Co., General Mills Progresso brand, and ConAgra Foods. Includes graph of "Sources of Sodium" including: home cooking (5%), salting (6%), natural (12%), and processed/restaurant food (77%).


“Unilever joins sodium reduction efforts.” (April 28, 2009) Food Business News. (5) 5:1, 35-36.

Announcement that Unilever will begin an initiative to reduce sodium in their processed food and beverage products. This effort will affect 22,000 products, which will be reformulated by the end of 2010. The company hopes to create further reductions by 2015. Research has linked sodium with high blood pressure, with experts recommending a daily intake of only 2,400 mg of sodium. On average, Americans consume almost double this amount, as "approximately 75% of total salt intake comes from processed foods such as bread, cheese, meat, sauces and soups.


Page last updated July 7, 2011

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