GMOs / Biotechnology
A Reference Resource List
Compiled by Emerson Library
Clapp, Stephen. UCS says biotechnology has failed to boost
U.S. crop yields. (April, 20, 2009) Food Chemical News. (51) 8:1,8.
A report by
the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) evaluating the effectiveness of genetic
engineering on crop yields has found that there is little evidence of significant
increases in yields through GE technology. The advocacy group claims that traditional
breeding continues to produce better results. However, Sharon Bomer Lauritsen, executive
vice president at the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) states, "It's absurd
to deny biotechnology's contribution, among other factors, to increased crop production.
Since the introduction of agricultural biotechnology in 1996, we have seen double-digit
growth in corn and soybean yields." She states the benefits of biotech crops as
"a reduction in the environmental impacts of agriculture, increased production on the
same amount of acreage, improved food quality, and increased farmer incomes." The UCS
report is available online at www.ucsusa.org.
Gijs. Assessing the safety of genetically modified crops used for food and feed
purposes. (February 2009) New Food.
genetically modified agriculture has reached 114 million hectares globally. Common traits
for GM crops are resistant to herbicides and resistant to insects. Discusses the
harmonized approach created by international organizations to assess the safety of GM
products. Commonly addressed issues include: molecular characterization, comparative
analysis of compositional/phenotypic/agronomic characteristics, unintended effects,
potential toxicity & allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, nutritional value, and
Nachay, Karen. Genetic
engineering guidance issued. (March 2009) Food
that the FDA has released the final guidance for industry on the regulation of genetically
engineered (GE) animals. Available online at www.fda.gov/cvm/GEanimals.htm.
Joe. Labeling: Are we leveling with consumers? (March 2009) Food Technology. (63)
considers how forthcoming the food industry should be in labeling controversial food
processes/ingredients. The argument is that the food industry does much more harm by being
viewed as "secretive and uncommunicative" than they would in acknowledging
novel/controversial technologies. Issues include irradiation, carbon monoxide,
nanotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
in labeling. (February/March 2009) Food
Guidance on Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals has been published by the
FDA. This standard does not address the issue of labeling GE animals, as labeling is not
legally required. The FDA's policy on GE animals states that as they are not different
than conventional foods, they do not require additional labeling. However, according to a
survey conducted at the Consumers Union has found that 95% of consumers desire labeling of
2004 Journal Citations:
Adamy, Janet. Modified
DNA Found in Test of Traditional Seeds. (2004)
The Wall Street Journal (243) 37:D6.
Genetically modified material has been found
in traditional supplies of seed. The
genetically modified material is not supposed to be in the traditional supplies. The report was done by the Union of Concerned
Scientists. The group says there is no known
danger to consumers from where the material was found.
It does raise questions of how crop biotechnology can be controlled.
Bansasiak, Karen. Vermont
Requires Labels for GM Seeds. (2004) Food
Technology (58) 6:10.
Governor James Douglas of Vermont signed
into law on April 26 requiring labels on seeds that are genetically modified or
engineered. The law will take effect October
1. Sales of these seeds must also be reported
to the states secretary of agriculture. This
is the first state to require labeling of GM seeds.
Robert V. Biotech Labeling Still
Unresolved in Codex. (2004) Food
Technology (58) 6:208.
Since 1991, the labeling of
genetically modified foods has been an unresolved issue on the Codex agendas. The Codex Alimentarius Commission is used as a
forum to set international standards for food safety and quality.
Essig, Juliane S., Main, Marcy L., and Trick, Harold N. Ph.D. Genetically Modified Crops: Part II. Risks
and Regulations. (2004) AIB Research
Department Technical Bulletin (26) 2:1-8.
This technical bulletin is the second in a
two part series discussing genetically modified or genetically engineered crops. The authors discuss in this bulletin if it is
dangerous to eat genetically engineered crops and StarLink corn. They include a table on terms and abbreviations
that are used when talking about genetic engineered crops, which include allergen, APHIS,
Bt, bioengineered, DNA, EPA, FDA, RNA, GMO, GE, GRAS, monoculture, nucleotide base,
organic, pathogen, transgene, roundup, roundup ready crops, and USDA. A table on responsibilities of U.S. agencies that
have oversight of plant biotechnology including the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Animal, and Plant Health Inspection Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the
Food and Drug Administration. The authors
also discuss how bioengineered crops are involved with antibiotic resistance, the labeling
issue if GE food is safe, how genetically engineered crops affect the environment, are GE
crops creating super weeds, how they affect genetic diversity of crops, if an increased
use of Bt crops are used will pest management tools stop working after awhile, does Bt
crops kill Monarch butterflies, if Roundup Ready is working as effective as herbicide, and
why Europe is so opposed to genetically engineered foods.
Fagan, John. GMO
Traceability Requirements Expand. (2004)
Food Technology (58) 3:124.
The author discusses the new European
Unions genetically modified organism traceability and labeling regulations. These new regulations can be seen as an
opportunity for North American ingredient producers to keep or expand their market share
in the European Union.
Giese, James. EU
Adopts New GM Food Regulations. (2004) Food
Technology (58) 5:20.
The EU has adopted a Genetically Modified
Food and Feed Regulation 1829/2003. They
cover the applications and authorization of new GM food and feed products. More information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2004/l_102/l_1022040407en00140025.pdf.
Henry, Robert J. Genetic
Improvements of Cereals. (2004) Cereal
Foods World (49) 3:122, 124-129.
For this article, cereals include barley,
maize, millet, oat, rice, rye, sorghum, and wheat. The
author discusses the importance of cereal improvement and quantity versus quality. Genetic resources include genetic resources in
wild populations (in Situ conversation), genetic resources in cultivated crops, genetic
resource collection, DNA banks, and techniques for expansion of genetic resources. The author discusses traditional traits, novel
traits, and cereal genomics.
Joy, David. What
Do Europes GM Regs Require? (2004)
Food Processing (65) 6:14.
The European Unions last set of
regulations for foods that are from genetically modified sources took effect in April. The author discusses the difficulties of these new
regulations, traceability of food additives, and approval of GM-derived additives.
Kilman, Scott. Monsanto
Drops Plans for Now to Make Bioengineered Wheat.
(2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 92:A2.
Monsanto Co. has given in to the resistance
to bioengineered wheat from the U.S. food industry. They
have decided not to make the wheat for now. The
wheat would have made it easier for farmers to kill weeds without harming the wheat
Kilman, Scott. U.S.
Considers Overhauling Biotech Rules for Crops.
(2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 16:A5.
The Agricultural Department is thinking
about greatly overhauling its crop biotechnology regulations that started in 1987. There have been few details about the coming
changes so far but it has been reported that they will meet the food industrys
demand for stricter control of the newest biotechnology crops.
Lewis, Sara and Clapp, Steve. EU
Lifts Moratorium but U.S. Won't Drop WTO Case. (2004) Food Chemical News (46) 15: 1,
(pdf file available by paid subscription at: http://www.foodchemicalnews.com
The European Union has ended the
six-year moratorium against the bt11 variety of corn from human consumption
produced by Syngenta. There was a "consensus" among the commisoners
present at the meeting to lift the moratorium. The United States did not support
McGregor, Richard. Taste
Modification in the Biotech Era. (2004)
Food Technology (58) 5:24, 26, 28-30.
The author discusses some of the advances in
understanding the science of taste. This
allows a biotechnological approach to develop new tastes and foods. The author discusses some of the science of taste
and includes a table on a deeper understanding of the science of taste and how it is
offering new solutions and ideas to food industry problems.
The author also discusses overcoming bitterness and potentiating sweetness. He also discusses that biotechnology will increase
in its role in the future of the development of new flavors.
Miller, Scott. Bayer
Wont Sell Gene-Altered Seeds in the U.K.
(2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 64:A12.
Bayer CropScience AG has decided not to sell its corn seeds in Britain that are
genetically altered. The conditions that were
attached to selling the corn made the seeds not profitable for the company.
Miller, Scott. EUs
New Rules Will Shake Up Market for Bioengineered Food. (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 75:A1,
The author includes a table of total acres
of modified crops grown throughout the world from 1996 to 2003. Europe has started a new labeling rule on products
in European supermarkets. The labeling will
be a warning for consumers if 0.9 percent or more of the ingredients are from
Miller, Scott and Champion, Marc.
Britain to Allow Farmers to Grow Biotech Corn. (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243)
Britain is going to allow farmers to grow a
biotech corn strain. Some see this as a
weakening in Europes resistance against genetically modified food. The corn that will be grown will mostly be used
for cow feed. Included is a table of how many
acres are planted with modified crops (figures in the millions). The U.S. has 105.7, Argentina as 34.3, Canada has
10.9, Brazil has 7.4, China has 6.9, and Spain has 0.1.
Regalado, Antonio and Kilman, Scott.
Better-Tasting Beef Through Genetic Testing? (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243)
Cargill Inc. announced that they found
genetic markers in cattle that indicate for good tasting meat. They will make a prototype blood test to screen
their young cattle for the genetic potential to taste good.
This test could help increase profit margins if they are successful.
Stokstad, Erik. Monsanto
Pulls the Plug on Genetically Modified Wheat. (2004)
Science (304) 5674:1088-1089.
Monsanto stopped their plans to
commercialize Roundup Ready wheat. They did
not pull the project because of resistance from the industry, but because of the risky
economy. Instead, they are focusing on
projects that are known moneymakers. In
2003, Monsanto invested less than $5 million into research and development on genetically
Smith, Jeffrey M. Are
Genetically Engineered Foods Dangerous. (2004)
Food Quality (11) 1:22-23.
The FDA reports that GM foods are GRAS,
while the European Union reports that they are illegal like asbestos. The author discusses if biotech foods are safe and
what the FDA has done so far about them. Currently,
biotech companies test their own food and are not required to tell the FDA if they do
introduce a new GM food. The author suggests
that people responsible for food safety to review the information because GM foods should
not have been approved for human consumption.
Stokstad, Erik. Experts
Recommend A Cautious Approach. (2004) Science
Researchers have developed a way to contain
and isolate engineered species so that they do not harm humans. For example, bioengineered crops pollen is
damaged so that it does not spread the resistance to weeds and salmon are sterilized so
that if they make it to the ocean, they cannot compete with other species. The National Academy of Sciences reports that all
GMO species need to be contained such as traits of plumper fruits.
Thomson, Bill. "EU's New Biotech-Crop Laws May Raise, Now Lower,
Barriers." (2004) The Wall Street Journal (243) 13: C6.
The European Union is preparing to start new
laws in April to label and track all food that is genetically modified food. U.S. farmers
and government officials have warned that this does not mean that the food is going to be
able to got to market easily. The new laws may actually cause tougher trade barriers
than what is currently in place. The EU wants labels to help maintained consumer
confidence in the foods they eat.
Wal-Marts Position on Genetically Engineered Foods. (2004) Manufacturing Confectioner (84)
This paper was published by Wal-Mart as a
statement against a shareholder proposal pertaining to genetically modified engineered
food products. The full text of a report is
at www.gao.gov/new.items/d02566.pdf. The proposal number is 9.
2003 Journal Citations:
Abboud, Leila. Makers of Modified Crops Faulted on Safety
Data Submitted to FDA. (2003) The Wall Street
Journal (241) 4: A6.
Genetically modified crop
makers avoided questions and submitted faulty data on federal applications that were
supposed to be used to ensure safety of bioengineered foods before they are marketed to
the public. The review process is flawed and
allows these makers to slip through the cracks with false information. To change this, FDA rules will have to be changed
to give the agency more power to ensure that correct information is submitted.
Callahan, Patricia and Kilman,
Scott. Seeds of Doubt: Some Ingredients
are Genetically Modified, Despite Labels Claim.
The Wall Street Journal (237) 67.
how some products that are labeled as non-GMO actually do contain ingredients,
which have been genetically modified. The
Wall Street Journal had a laboratory analysis of 20 products that were labeled as
non GMO or GMO free. Eleven
of the 20 products tested positive for containing genetic material used to modify
plants, while five other samples contained higher levels of the material. Ingredient companies are advising their customers
not to use the GMO labels because it is almost impossible to have an ingredient that does
not contain minute amounts genetic material. The
problem of contamination of genetically modified crops can be traced back to the seed, and
can be contributed to the fact that throughout the whole process there is no way to keep
genetically modified crops or ingredients separated from non-genetically modified crops. Notes how StarLink Corn has
caused the recall of over 300 products.
Clapp, Steven. CODEX Biotech Labeling Work Group
Fails to Meet Consensus. Food Chemical News (45) 41:1-18. Available
online through subscription at http://www.foodchemicalnews.com.
A Codex Committee has failed to reach
an agreement on biotech labeling. The
committee met in Calgary, Alberta, October 28-30, 2003.
Notes that several "underlying issues" were identified in a paper.
Conan, Kerri. The
Top 7 Things That Matter on the Food Label. (2003)
Health (17) 9:152-155.
The author gives advice on how to interpret
food labels in the U.S. Description on several food label designs. Consumers should know the lingo so that they can
make better and healthier choices in food. The
seven things that one should know include new health claims; trans-fats; where food comes
from; irradiating foods; growth hormones, antibiotics, and artificial dyes; genetic
engineering; and allergens.
EPA Approves Modified Corn
That Targets Rootworm. (2003) Food
Processing (64) 3:14.
The Environmental Protection
Agency granted Monsanto Co. permission for three years to sell the first biotech corn that
is designed to control corn rootworm. They
have to do more testing and evaluation during the three-year period. Monsanto calls the corn "YieldGard Rootworm
corn" and contains a protein from Bacillus thuringienis, which is a common soil
microbe that targets the corn rootworm larvae. The
EPA will require farmers to set aside 20% of their corn without the protein so that corn
does not develop a resistance. The USDA has
estimated that pests cause $1 billion in lost revenue each year for the U.S. corn crop.
Approves New GE Corn Variety. (2003)
Food Chemical News Daily (5) 213.
Environmental Protection Agency has approved Monsanto Co.s genetically engineered
corn variety Yield Guard Plus. The new corn
produces two proteins aimed at damaged caused by the
European corn borer (a moth), and root damage caused by the corn rootworm (a beetle). Notes that more information on EPAs
biotechnology regulatory program can be found at: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides.
EU to Enact Modified-Corn Rules. (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 1: A2.
The European Parliament is
expected to pass legislation that would be a further blow to U.S. farmers. As part of the legislation, the European Union
would require a genetic history of all products, which could be traced back to the farmer. Further limitation on the planting of genetically
engineered crops is also expected.
Fassl, Joyce. Oreos, Irradiation, Biotechnology. (2003) Food Engineering (75) 6:8.
A recent survey showed findings that
Americans are supporting the benefits of biotechnology.
The International Food Information Council reports that Americans think that
biotechnology will benefit them in the next five years.
The IFIC also reported that 77 percent of Americans could not think of anything
else to add to labels. For trans fats,
consumers are not really listening to the media or do not care.
Giese, James. U.S. Files WTO Case Against EU on Biotech
Foods. (2003) Food Technology
United States, Argentina, Canada, and Egypt
are filing with the World Trade Organization against the European Union because of the
EUs illegal five-year moratorium on approving agricultural biotech products. There are other countries joining the lawsuit as
third parties. The following web site
includes more information, www.usda.gov/news/releases/2003/05/0156.htm.
Joy, David. E.U. Issues New GMO Regulations. (2003) Food Processing (64)
The European Union has issued two new
regulations for genetically modified foods. The
first regulation deals with pre-market authorization and the labeling of genetically
modified foods, which are intended for human and animal consumption. The U.S. has filed a complaint with the World
Trade Organization about the E.U.s refusal to authorize marketing of GMO foods.
Kilman, Scott and Mathews, Anna
Wilde. Meat and Milk Clones May Get
Support. (2003) The Wall Street
Journal (242) 87:A2.
and Drug Administration is expected to report that eating cloned livestock and their
offspring appears to be safe. Despite this
announcement, it will probably be several years before consumers can find cloned animal
meat on the shelf because it is currently too expensive.
King, Neil Jr. U.S.-EU Crop Fight Flares. (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242)
The European Union is trying to
require a new labeling rule that is meant to replace the ban on genetically modified crops
that the U.S. has challenged. The EU is also
trying to require a paper-trail of where the food was produced all the way to consumer who
eats it. Something that would be very costly
to farmers and retailers. U.S. farmers also
oppose the new labeling rule and are pleading with the Bush administration to help them
challenge the new ruling. Farmers are
claiming that this labeling rule is a trade barrier.
Both sides will have a tough time trying to convince the other that they are right.
King, Neil Jr. U.S. to Challenge EU Moratorium on
Genetically Modified Foods. (2003) The Wall Street Journal (241) 2: A4.
In 1998, the European Union put
into effect that it would not accept genetically modified foods. The U.S. wants to file a complaint with the World
Trade Organization and wants to reopen this trade. U.S.
growers say that this ban has cost $300
million in annual sales of bioengineered corn.
Macaulay, Jennifer. Biopharming:
Growing Medicine Crops. (2003) Food
Technology (57) 9:20.
In the biotechnology industry, a new
emerging segment is biopharming. Biopharming
is using plants that are genetically modified to produce pharmaceuticals, also called
plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs). Currently,
biologics are expensive to manufacture and do not meet current demand. A facility capable of producing PMPs takes 5 to 7
years to build and costs about $600 million. These
drugs would treat arthritis, Alzheimers disease, herpes, cancer, and infectious
diseases, to name a few. The FDA has not
approved of these drugs as they are still in clinical trials and field tests. One serious issue about these crops is how they
will be contained and not be mixed into the U.S. food supply. Biopharming could offer many advantages, such as
meeting demand of medicines and more affordable medications to patients.
McGee, Suzanne. Biotech
Firms Find Now Isnt Opportune for IPOs. (2003)
The Wall Street Journal (105) 88:C1, C20.
Biotechnology companies are
entering the market to get more capital for their companies, but they are finding that
this is not the right time for companies to do their first initial public offerings. These companies filed for the IPOs earlier this
year when the market was looking good, but now as they are putting their IPOs into the
market, they have to offer their stock at lower prices.
During the first ten weeks of the year, biotechnology index rose 93%.
Miller, Scott. Biotech
Crop Study May Stir Critics. (2003) The Wall Street Journal (242) 77:A6.
The British government conducted a study
that revealed that farming of some biotech crops could significantly lower the number of
insects, which is an important link in the wildlife food chain. This information could increase opposition from
Europe on biotech crops. This report is one
of the most far-reaching field studies on biotech crops ever.
Mitchener, Brandon, Scott Kilman, and Scott Miller. European Ruling Backs Banning of Biotech
Crops. (2003) The Wall Street
Journal (242) 50:A23.
Europe's top court said that
governments could block the sale of genetically modified foods in Europe. But, the governments do have to come up with a
better reason for blocking the food. Europe
has written new food label laws that require food producers to give more information to
consumers about genetically modified food. The
governments have more time now to do research on genetically modified foods before the
European Union will allow modified crops into the country.
Morton, David. Some
Ethical Issues in Biotechnology Involving Animals.
(2003) Journal of Commercial Biotechnology (9) 2:163-170.
The author presents ethical issues with
biotechnology that involves animals. He
discusses the concern of animal welfare and the protection of the environment for other
animal species. Morton believes that animal
protection is the most important thing in terms of biotechnology and believes that with
the right intentions and motivation that the right actions will follow. Morton also discusses the benefits of genetic
manipulation, ethical issues, animal rights, and future biotechnological considerations.
Regalado, Antonio. Critics
of Biotech Industry Sign Petition Against Patenting of Genes, Plants, Tissue. (2003) The Wall Street Journal (239) 23:
Leaders from 200
nongovernmental organizations are planning to create pressure to end patents on plants,
genes, microorganisms, and human tissues. This
is a move to block patents from biotechnology firms who claim them as
intellectual-property. Over 250 groups signed
a treaty proposal to stop patenting of the information.
Sherrid, Pamela. Altered
Waves of Grain. (2003) U.S. News
& World Report (134) 9:44.
The authors main focus is on the
controversy of agriculture that is genetically modified (GM). There has been success in GM crops in the U.S. and
in many countries in Europe. Japan, along
with other nations, have raised concerns of GM crops and the potential risks for human
consumption. The author discusses the pros
and cons of GM seed. Monsanto is looking to
get approval from the U.S. government for its GM wheat seed. The author also discusses the impact GM crops will
have on organic farmers.
Violent Protests Erupting Over Biotechnology. (2003) Business CustomerWire 10/14/2003.
In San Francisco, there is a growing
militant movement, which is against genetic engineering in agriculture and medicine. Sabotage is increasing from this movement. A biotech company was bombed and genetically
modified crops were destroyed. Because of
this, targeted companies are ensuring extra security precautions. The group that claims the destruction is called
Revolutionary Cells and has vowed that more bombings were on the way.
2002 Journal Citations:
Johnson, Keith. In
Debate Over Modified Foods, Famine Weighs In. (2002) The Wall Street Journal May 22, 2002: B7.
Africa are protesting the right to grow genetically modified food. Famine in Southern Africa added to the
urgency of the campaign. Biotech imports are
banned in Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Langen, Sara. IFIC Conducts Consumer Food Biotech
Survey. (2002) Food Technology (56) 1:12.
The International Food Information Council
conducted a consumer survey in September 2001 that reported that 61% of Americans believe
and can actually state how biotechnology will benefit them or their families over the next
five years. Expected benefits include
improvement in health, nutrition, quality, taste, and variety of foods. Also there will be a reduced chemical and
pesticide use on plants, reduced cost of foods, and improved crops and yields. For more information, the web site is www.ific.org.
Miller, Scott. U.S. Farmers
Want WTO Review of GMO Dispute with Europe. (2002) The Wall Street Journal
(240) 104: A13.
The European agriculture
ministers are debating if they want to lift a ban on new genetically modified organisms. U.S. farmers are increasing their pressure on
Washington to go to WTO and take their case about genetically modified food. U.S. farmers would like this ban lifted by the
end of the year so they can begin exporting. Europe
would like to require labels on food that have or had genetically modified organisms, but
U.S. farmers feel that this would scare European consumers away from the products. U.S. farmers would also like Washington to file a
formal complaint with WTO about this because they would like not to have to put the label
on their products.
Brandon. Europe Has No Appetite for Modified Food. (2002) The Wall Street
Journal (240) 59: B3.
Biotechnology researchers in
Europe say that they are inventing and improving new and better beans, grapes, wheat and
bananas. They know that this food will
probably never be eaten in Europe but will have to go abroad with their findings. Europeans have such a fear of food that has been
bioengineered that politicians have banned the food in Europe. Some researchers are leaving Europe to go to
countries that are not afraid of the new food.
Todd, Tim. An
Earful: Bacteria May Boost Corn Yields, Cut Production Costs. (2002) The Wall Street Journal (239) 15:C6.
Eric Triplett got an idea over
twelve years ago to use an application of biotechnology to boost corn production. His idea would help cornfields not need nitrogen
fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizer is a large
component of corn production and a large cost factor to farmers. His strain of bacteria that he found could
increase corn production by 5% to 10%. This
process does not modify the genes of the crop.
2005 Journal Citations:
Clifton E. Biotech on the Farm:
Realizing the Promise. (September/October
2005) The Futurist (39)5: 38-42.
Though genetically modified
crops have been available for years, the original goal of GM crops was to end world hunger
has not been realized. Biotechnology has had
its success, and its disappointments, but to truly utilize the science and satisfy both
local and global consumers a genetic science commission could be the answer. Some countries do not allow any genetically
engineered food products to be imported which hurts U.S. farmers and many activists would
like GM foods to be labeled. This proposed
commission could answer these issues and provide proof that the U.S. takes food safety, in
regards to biotechnology, seriously.
Davis, Donald R. Trade-Offs
in Agriculture and Nutrition. (March
2005) Food Technology (59) 3:120.
The author discusses how environmental and
genetic methods can help increase crop yields but a downfall to this is that they may
reduce concentrations of some nutrients. Technology
may help us to increase selected nutrient concentrations.
He does ask the question if we will find other side effects down the road.
EU Food Safety Authority Bashed for Pro-GMO Bias. (December 2004/January 2005) Food Quality
An environmental group, Friends of the Earth
Europe, is accusing the European Safety Authority (EFSA) of repeated bias for genetically
modified foods and for having links with the biotech industry. The report can be found at www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/publications/EFSAreport.pdf
2001 Journal Citations:
Hollingsworth, Pierce. GMO
Safety: A Trojan Horse. (2001) Food
Technology (55) 10:20.
Radical environmentalists destroyed
Monsantos test site for genetically modified corn in France on August 26, 2001. Another site was destroyed earlier in southern
France. These people are opposed to the
development and testing of GM crops. They
believe that they are unsafe products. The
European Union wants consumers to feel secure about their products so they have made tight
regulations for GM products in the food supply. The
EU wants to stress food safety and not that they are blocking crops from the U.S.
Hotchkiss, Joseph H. Pasteur
and Biotechnology: Lessons from the Past. (2001)
Food Technology (55) 9:146.
The article discusses the history of
pasteurizing milk and the fears that went along with it from the public. The author makes reference to a book called The
Milk Question, which was published in 1912. In
it, M.J. Rosenau offered advice for scientists and how they should deal with controversy. The scientists should have patience, educate, and
cooperate. They should also let facts
speak for themselves. In a later book
by H. Hill called Pasteurization, which was published in 1947, he recommended to
scientists that they should be active in public debate when facing controversy. This is advice to current scientists who are
facing opposition for biotechnology.
Kershen, Drew L. Avoiding
GMOs May Increase Legal Risks. (2001) Food
Technology (55) 10:124.
Companies that avoid food that is
genetically modified because of anti-biotechnology activist groups are increasing their
legal liability and negative publicity. They
can increase their risk of product liability and risk of personal injury liability. Companies should not ban foods from their
products because it is announced that they might be genetically modified. Instead, they should educate consumers and offer
reassurance during these times.
Page last updated September 11, 2009.
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