A Reference Resource List
Compiled by Emerson Library
S., and Stratakos, Alaxandros. (2010). Reduction of acrylamide with irradiation. In Irradiation
of food commodities: techniques, applications, detection, legislation, safety and consumer
opinion. pp. 650-654.
develops yeast solution for acrylamide in processed foods. (May 2010) Bakers Journal. (70) 4:8.
company Functional Technologies Corp. has filed a patent for a yeast technology that
reduces the formation of acrylamide in foods. Acrylamide is categorized as a Group 2A carcinogen
by the World Health Organization, and is found in foods such as bread, cookies, crackers,
baby food, breakfast cereal, French fries, and potato chips.
Franco. (2010). "Acrylamide formation and reduction in fried potatoes." Processing
Effects on Safety and Quality of Food, pp. 231-252.
studies have focused on the acrylamide levels in fried potato products. Some research has
indicated that the levels are related to the Maillard reaction of the product and could
also have to do with the "reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars."
Other factors that may affect the acrylamide level are believed to be the potato variety
and field size, processing conditions of the potato including "pretreatments,
temperatures, and times of frying, type of frying and postfrying conditions" (p.
233). Research indicates that acrylamide is formed "mainly due to the reaction of
asparagine and reducing sugars" (p. 233). While this reaction is believed to cause
the formation of acrylamide, there is also a correlation to the cooking process used and
the temperature of that process or specifically the "thermal input" used in the
processing of the product that increases the acrylamide levels found in the products. Two
diagrams on p. 235 detail the possible ways that acrylamide is formed. One theory is that
acrylamide is produced from the oils present in food while the second theory is that
formation of acrylamide occurs from the "the nitrogen-containing compounds already
present in the food."
Updates on 2010
regulations. (February 2010) Prepared Foods.
Discusses issues under consideration by
U..S. regulatory agencies. Includes the following topics: Reportable Food Registry,
acrylamide levels in foods, salmonella and E. coli and product specific guidance, FDA
authority and enforcement power, proposed rulemaking on definition of term 'natural,"
environmental marketing claims, organic claims, and the FCT's Guides on Endorsements and
acrylamide. (June 2009) Food Product Design.
(19) 6: 101.
Jungbunzlauer Inc's CIMROMA, which is "a mineral salt that reduces acrylamide content
in heat-treated foods by up to 80% without influencing their sensorial properties."
Granvogl, Michael, Wieser, Herbert, and Schieberle, Peter. (2009). Aspargine
concentration and acrylamide formation potentinoal in wheat flour as affected by sulfur
fertilization. Consumer Driven Cereal Innovation: Where Science Meets Innovation :
Proceedings of the 1st Cereals & Erurope Spring Meeting, Montpellier, France, pp.
wheat, spelt and oat flours were analyzed to determine the levels of sulfur, nitrogen and
free asparagine. Asparagine is a a "precursor of acrylamide." The study
determined that that cereals should be fertilized with sulfur during growth to reduce high
levels of acrylamide during the heat processing of cereal products.
Esquivel, T. (2008) Understanding acrylamide. Food Product Design. 18(11), 16.
current research on acrylamide in fried and oven-baked foods. "More than one-third of
the calories consumed by U.S. and European populations contain acrylamide, a substance
classified as a 'probable human carcinogen' based on laboratory data." Includes brief
overviews of the following studies (all published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry): "Acrylamide Intake Through Diet and Human Cancer Risk." (2008;
56(15): 6,013-6019); "Inhibition of Acrylamide Toxicity in Mice by Three Dietary
Constituents" (2008; 56 (15):6,054-6,060); Effectiveness of Methods for
Reducing Acrylamide in Bakery Products (2008; 56(15):6,154-6,161); and
Reduction of Acrylamide Level in French Fries by Employing a Termerature Program
During Frying (2008; 56(15):6,162-6,166).
Mark. Swedes Issue New Warning on Acrylamide. (April 30 2007) Food Chemical News 49 (11):22. (Available online with paid
subscription at: http://www.foodchemcialnews.com)
findings of the Heatox Project from the Swedish National Food Administration humans may be
more susceptible to low levels of acrylamide. Notes
that progress has been made on reducing levels of acrylamide in French fires, potato chips
and bread however removing acrylamide from roasted coffee has proven more difficult.
Steps Back on Acrylamide Rules. (April 2006) Baking
& Snack. (28) 3:12
Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Environmental Health Hazrd Assessment has
withdrawn proposed rules that would required warning labels on products that are known to
contain acrylamide a known carcinogen.
"Answers to Acrylamide." (April 21, 2009) Milling & Baking News. (88)
4: 35-36, 38, 40.
Two new ingredients are being
promoted that "are designed to keep acrylamide from developing in food
products." The way the ingredients work is by converting "asparagine, a
precursor of acrylamide, into aspartate, another naturally occurring amino acid. The two
products are Acrylaway from Novozymes and PreventASe from DSM, both ingredients are
enzyme-based. The safety and use of the ingredients are still being considered by the Food
and Drug Administration.. Perspectives on acrylamide are provided by Gary Johnson, global
marketing manager, Novozymes North America Inc., Ruth Donners, business development
manager for Prevent ASe, DSM Food Specialties and Lee Sanders, vice-president of
government relations and public affairs at the American Bakers Association. Includes a
table listing acrylamide levels in grain-based foods. According to
the numbers provided in the table chocolate chip cookies, corn/tortilla chips, butter-type
crackers and hard, salted, pretzels have the highest acrylamide levels.
2005 Journal Citations:
Recommends Improved Food Prep Technology. (April/May
2005) Food Safety Magazine (11)2:8, 10.
Joint Expert Committee on Food
Additives' report on acrylamide called for "improving food preparation technologies
that lower acrylamide content in foods." The
report also suggested the use of enzyme asparaginase to remove asparagine as a
way to reduce acrylamide in the finished food product. To
view the whole report go to http://who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/summaries/en.
Cheong Tae; Hwang, Eun-Sun and Lee, Hyong Joo. Reducing
Acrylamide in Fried Snack Products by Adding Amino Acids. (June/July 2005)
Journal of Food Science, (70) 5:C54-C58.
Acrylamide content of fried
foods is dependent on the raw material, frying time and frying temperature. With the addition the amino acids lysine, glycine
or cysteine to potato snacks and wheat flour snacks reduced the amount of acrylamide
Snack Food Association Undergoes
Reorganization. (September 2005), Milling
& Baking News (84) 29: 42.
The Snack Food Association has announced a
reorganization plan due to positions that were eliminated.
The president of the SFA, Bob Shearer noted that recent issues in the
industry contributed to the changes. Top
issues cited were obesity, transfat and acrylamide.
Sues Food Processors over Acrylamide. (September
2005) Food Processing (66) 9:17.
Brief news item stating
Californian Attorney General sues H.J. Heinz, Procter & Gamble, Frito-Lay Inc, Lance
Inc, Kettle Foods Inc., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's and KFC for not warning consumers
about acrylamide content. The Attorney
General is able to do this under California's Proposition 65.
Michaelides, John. Acrylamide
Under the Microscope. (October 2005) Bakers Journal. (65) 8:14-15
Explains what acrylamide is,
the author's options on how it affects baked goods and what should be done.
Yaylayan, V.A., and Stadler, R.H. "Acrylamide Formation
in Food: A Mecahnistic Perpective. (2005). Journal of AOAC International (88)
Ernst, Detlef. Reliable
Sample Preparation in Food Technology. (2004)
Food Quality (11) 1:69-72.
The author discusses how the food industry
is searching for laboratory techniques that have minimal process interruptions. The authors discusses acrylamide and how tests
found that it is high in people who are not even exposed to it but may have been exposed
through food. The author discusses reliable
sample preparation and includes a sample of a flow chart for one.
EU Funds Acrylamide Research. (2004) Food Product Design (13) 10:26.
The European Union and joint project
partners have committed millions of euros to fund research into a program called HEATOX, a
three-year project. Heat-induced food
toxicants: identification, characterization, and risk minimization is the title of the
project. The Stockholm University research
team who were the first who identified acrylamide in food will head the research.
FDA Releases Acrylamide Data. (2004) Food Safety Magazine (10) 2:12.
The FDA released new information on
acrylamide levels in 750 new food samples. The
FDA is expanding their testing program
for acrylamide and will be testing 40 new infant formula samples. More information can be found at www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/pestadd.html#acryalmide.
Final FDA Acrylamide Action Plan, Data. (2004) FDA Consumer (38) 3:27.
The FDA released 750 new food samples and
their acrylamide levels. Also, the FDA
released their final version of their action plan that shows how they will evaluate the
risk of acrylamide and ways to reduce acrylamide levels in food. Updated information on acrylamide can be found at www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/acrydat2.html. FDAs action plan for acrylamide can be found
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for
Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Acrylamide
in Foods. Pesticides, Metals
Chemical Contaminants & Natural Toxins.
2003 Journal Citations:
Abboud, Leila. Food Industry,
California Spar Over Labeling. (2003) The
Wall Street Journal (242) 28:B1, B2.
Today, California is expected to
propose that warning labels be required on foods that contain significant levels of
acrylamide. Acrylamide is a chemical known to
cause cancer in animals. This chemical was
recently found in snack chips, French fries, cereals, and other fried or baked starchy
foods. California is acting under a 1986 law,
Proposition 65, which requires it to publicly list chemicals that cause cancer, birth
defects, and other health problems. If
accepted, California would be the only state to require the label. Companies are having a problem with this because
they say it would be difficult to label food products going to California and not label
food products going elsewhere. The Food and
Drug Administration and the World Health Organization have acknowledged what acrylamide
does but does not tell consumers to change their eating habits before they do more
research on acrylamide and its effects on humans. The
organizations also urge California to hold off on labeling until the two-year research can
Adams, Judi. Regaining the
Healthful Image of Grain-Based Foods. (2003)
Cereal Foods World (48) 9:124-127.
In the media, it is easy to find articles,
reports, and information on how carbohydrates are to blame for American's obesity crisis. The U.S. food pyramid guide is now being
challenged for its recommendation of 6 to 11 servings a day for Americans. High protein diets are one reason to blame because
they claim that carbohydrates are bad. Little
information is available to the public that says differently. Some objection to the USDA Food Guide Pyramid
comes from information of the Glycemic Index. The
article includes acrylamide and trans fats, two more issues that are in the spotlight
along with carbohydrates. The grain-based
food industry is responding to attacks that carbohydrates are bad for people. They have yet to give a resound response to the
public. What is needed is a third-party
nutritionist to challenge the misinformation about carbohydrates.
Bachtold, Daniel. Deep-Fried
Cancer Risk Downplayed. (2003) Science
Now p. 5
Swedish scientists found high concentrations
of acrylamide in bread, chips, and French fries last year.
But with a new study, they have not found any connection between the dietary intake
of acrylamide and cancer in humans. The study
is not definitive in part because it lacks comprehensive data on acrylamide in various
foods. The study conducted could also have
been too small.
Bren, Linda. Turning
Up The Heat On Acrylamide. (2003) FDA
Consumer (37) 1:10-11.
Acrylamide is a white and odorless chemical
that is found naturally as a by-product in cooked foods.
Scientists have found that acrylamide does cause cancer in laboratory rats. They also know that if a person comes into contact
with a huge amount of acrylamide that it can cause nerve damage. No one knows if the amounts of acrylamide in foods
will cause harm or cancer to humans. The FDA
is still stressing the importance of having a traditional well-balanced diet. They also advise consumers to not cook food
excessively to reduce the amount. They do
reinforce that is more important to fully cook the food to reduce pathogens. There is cooperative research at this time into
studying the effects of acrylamide in humans.
Coffee and Acrylamide.
(2003) Food Processing (63) 12:14.
Coffee was found to have significant levels
of acrylamide, a carcinogen. Swedish
researchers from the state Food Control Authorities in Uppsala found these results. If a person were to drink a liter of coffee a day,
they would raise their acrylamide intake by 100%. A
liter of coffee has 20 micrograms of acrylamide. This
research confirmed earlier results in Switzerland and Germany.
Dvoark, Blake D. Chemo
With Your Cheerios. (2003) Consumers
Research Magazine (86) 9:38
The author discusses what we currently know
about acrylamide. So far, research has not
found acrylamide in uncooked foods, only in foods that are baked, fried, or roasted. Scientists know that large amounts of acrylamide
can cause cancer in lab rats. The amount of
acrylamide in foods is still really low compared to the dosages that were used in lab
rats. The Center for Consumer Freedom (CCF)
issued its own brief to the FDA estimating that there are 8,900 acrylamide-related cancer
cases. More information on the briefing can
be found at cspinet.org/new/pdf/acrylamide.petition.pdf.
More information on acrylamide can be found on the FDAs web site at www.fda.gov.
High Exposure To Acrylamide Is Higher Still in Smoking Than
Non-Smoking Germans. (2003)
Cancer Weekly 4/30/2003:29-30
Published research in Germany showed that
smokers had a higher level of acrylamide. Nonsmokers
still had levels of acrylamide but not as high as smokers.
For the nonsmokers, the level of acrylamide is probably due to dietary
uptake. The publisher of the International
Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health published the research. The study can be requested from: Urban &
Fischer Verlag, Branch Office Jena, PO Box 100537, D-07705 Jena, Germany.
In Vitro Study Suggests Acrylamide Causes DNA Damage. (2003) Cancer Weekly 7/8/2003:50-51.
A study was reported in the June 18, 2003
issues of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute that suggests in studies
done, acrylamide influences its mutagenicity on DNA by forming adducts and starting
genetic mutations. DNA adducts have the
ability to cause problems with the DNA replication process, which in theory can lead to
Joy, David. Three
Big Rules To Take Effect This Year. (2003)
Food Processing (64) 4:28, 30.
The Federal Drug Administration will be
putting into effect this year three new rules that will affect food. They include the trans fat labeling rule, food
processing facility registration rule, and a rule that requires prior notification of food
imported into the U.S. None of these rules
originated from the FDA. The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and
Response Act of 2002 mandated the import notification rule and facility registration rule. The trans fat rule started in part by a petition
filed with the Center for Science in the Public Interest.
Not only are food manufacturers having to worry about these new rules, they are
also faced with growing interest in allergens and acrylamide. Acrylamide is believed to be a carcinogenic that
appears naturally in certain starchy foods that are cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide and allergens will be getting more
research to ensure that our food is safe.
Langen, Sara. EU
Launches Online Acrylamide Database. (2003)
Food Technology (57) 4:10.
The European Union is trying to clarify
potential public health risks and also identify how to educe levels of acrylamides in
food. This database will be an online
resource. Acrylamide is a chemical that is
found in food, but public health risks are unclear. The
website for the database is http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/fcr/acrylamide/acryl_database_en.html.
Possible Cancer Causer Appears in Nutritious Food As Well As In
Fast Food. (2003) Medical Letter on
the CDC & FDA 3/23/2003:11-12.
U.S. government scientists say that
acrylamide occurs both in fast foods and in nutritious foods. Acrylamide could be a possible cancer causing
substance that occurs naturally in high-carbohydrate foods that are cooked at high
temperatures. The Food and Drug
Administration reports that foods that have lower levels of acrylamide are eaten more
often that increases overall exposure. Foods
such as milk, frozen vegetables, and meat contain no acrylamide. The following foods contain acrylamide: toast and
soft bread at 2.2, breakfast cereal at 7.3 mcg, cookies at 6.6 mcg, and coffee at 2 mcg. Some popular foods, like pizza, have yet to
measured for acrylamide levels.
Raloff, J. Exonerated? (2003) Science News (163) 6:84-85.
The Swedish did an analysis that tried to
play down the likelihood that people could get cancer from foods that have acrylamide
naturally. Acrylamide is a building block for
plastic and an animal carcinogen. Last year,
researchers found that it forms during high-temperature cooking. Examples include fried and baked foods like
potatoes, breads, and starchy foods. After a
study, the researchers concluded that acrylamide in the human diet must be
Researchers Dispute Link Between Acrylamide and Some Types of
Cancers. (2003) Cancer Weekly
A study shows through preliminary research
that there is no link between acrylamide and an increased risk in some types of cancer. There was a follow up article in the British
Journal of Cancer (2003;88(2)) from researchers in Sweden and the U.S. found these
results. Experts still caution that the
follow up study was too small.
Sharp, David. Acrylamide
in Food. (2003) Lancet (361)
Sweden released research reports that showed
findings of acrylamide in normally cooked foods. In
1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reported acrylamide as a
human carcinogen. Regulatory agencies
confirmed the Swedish research and reported that they could give no advice on how to avoid
acrylamide in foods or what amount was safe for human consumption.
Singh, Debashis. Dietary
Acrylamide May Not Cause Cancer. (2003)
British Medical Journal (326) 7384:303.
The International Agency for Research on
Cancer classified acrylamide as a human carcinogen in 1994.
In 2002, a Swedish survey found that acrylamide occurs naturally in everyday
food products. Another study was done that
shows that it does not seem to raise the level of risk for cancer in humans.
Tateo, F. and Bononi, M. A
GC/MS Method For The Routine Determination of Acrylamide in Food. (2003) Italian Journal of Food Science (15)
The authors describe a simplified analytical
method to determine how much acrylamide is in food. They
determined that routine analysis was not attainable from previously published procedures. The method that they used had a preliminary
sample defatting step that was followed by extraction with methanol and concentration. GC/MS evaluated the acrylamide concentration
U.S. Agency Finds Highly Variable Levels of Worrisome Chemical
in Foods. (2003) Medical Letter on
the CDC & FDA 1/5/2003:8
Federal research that was released December
4, 2002 showed that the level of acrylamide might depend on what length of time the food
is cooked. The U.S. Food and Drug
Administration is doing preliminary testing that is showing how American food compares to
other countries in terms of the level of acrylamide found.
Through their research the FDA has also found that by testing the same
food, they find different levels of acrylamide. The
FDA has hired a panel of experts to help them find a way to lower the amount of acrylamide
2002 Journal Citations:
Joy, David. FDAs
Action Plan for Acrylamide. (2002) Food
Processing (63) 11:24, 26.
Sweden and other countries have
confirmed through research that acrylamide forms through high-temperature cooking of
certain starchy foods. Before this discovery,
chemists were the only ones who really knew of this carcinogen. Chemists knew acrylamide as a chemical
intermediate in the production of polyacrylamides, dyes and copolymers for contact lenses. Acrylamide has always been a chemical that has
been severely limited in the water and food supply by laws and regulations. Now, it is found in cooked starchy foods and
raises health concerns. What question has to
be answered now is if acrylamide is as dangerous as what was previous thought. What is needed to answer this question is a
careful, scientific research study. The Food
and Drug Administration has proposed a draft for an action plan for acrylamide, which
includes more research of the toxicology of acrylamide.